us foreign policy since 1945 transatlantic relations and the cold war april 16 2007
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US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007

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US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007. LAST: BERLIN…. CUBA, 1959-1962. Fidelistas vs. Batista Castro’s Cuba 1959 US Missiles to Turkey, 1959 (Jupiter) May 1960: US ends aid program to Cuba, Soviets begin theirs Bay of Pigs, April 1961

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cuba 1959 1962
CUBA, 1959-1962
  • Fidelistas vs. Batista
  • Castro’s Cuba 1959
  • US Missiles to Turkey, 1959 (Jupiter)
  • May 1960: US ends aid program to Cuba, Soviets begin theirs
  • Bay of Pigs, April 1961
  • Operation Mongoose, January 1962
  • June-July 1962, Preparations for missiles begin in Cuba
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962
why the missile crisis
WHY THE MISSILE CRISIS?
  • Correct the Nuclear Imbalance?
  • Save the Revolution?

“On our part, we will do everything possible to stabilize the situation in Cuba defend Cuba against invasion and assure you the possibilities for peacefully building a socialist society.”

Khrushchev to Castro

October 28, 1962

outcomes
OUTCOMES
  • Germany: 1962-1989: 5,000 leave East Germany (1949-61: 2.6 million)
  • Cuba: Missiles out but Revolution survives
  • Stability in Europe, Instability in the Third World
  • Nuclear Stalemate confirmed, the World of MAD
  • Monolith is no more…
  • Free world divisions…
transatlantic relations and the cold war
TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR
  • “How much unity should we want? How much diversity can we stand?”
  • Kissinger, 1969
global context
GLOBAL CONTEXT
  • Cold War Alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact..)
  • Regional Conflicts (Korea, Middle East, Vietnam)
  • International Economy (Marshall Plan, EEC, GATT)
johnson vs de gaulle
JOHNSON vs. DE GAULLE
  • “we’ve really got no control over their (France’s) foreign policy.”
johnson s detente
JOHNSON’S DETENTE
  • “Each time I mentioned missiles, Kosygin talked about Arabs and Israelis.”
  • “The Cold War is not over.”
nixon ostpolitik
NIXON & OSTPOLITIK
  • “[there is] a danger that as Brandt pursues the quest for normalization, his advisers and supporters will eventually succeed in leading him to jeopardize Germany’s entire international position… assuming Brandt achieves a degree of normalization, he or his successor may discover before long that the hoped-for benefits fail to develop. Instead of ameliorating the division of Germany, recognition of the G[erman] D[emocratic] R[epublic] may boost its status and strengthen the Communist regime…. More fundamentally, the Soviets having achieved their first set of objectives may then confront the FRG with the proposition that a real and lasting improvement in the FRG’s relations with the GDR and other Eastern countries can only be achieved if Bonn loosens its Western ties.”

-- Kissinger to Nixon, February 1970

  • “This meant that Washington wanted to have the last word.”

-- Brandt

year of europe
YEAR OF EUROPE
  • "The United States has global interests and responsibilities. Our European allies have regional interests."
  • “For Kissinger to announce a Year of Europe was like for me to stand on Trafalgar Square and announce that we were embarking on a year to save America!”

-- Edward Heath

a balance sheet
A BALANCE SHEET
  • «In any case, what Europe thinks is basically irrelevant.» Kissinger
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