Us foreign policy since 1945 transatlantic relations and the cold war april 16 2007
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US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR April 16, 2007. LAST: BERLIN…. CUBA, 1959-1962. Fidelistas vs. Batista Castro’s Cuba 1959 US Missiles to Turkey, 1959 (Jupiter) May 1960: US ends aid program to Cuba, Soviets begin theirs Bay of Pigs, April 1961

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Us foreign policy since 1945 transatlantic relations and the cold war april 16 2007 l.jpg
US foreign policy since 1945: TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WARApril 16, 2007



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CUBA, 1959-1962

  • Fidelistas vs. Batista

  • Castro’s Cuba 1959

  • US Missiles to Turkey, 1959 (Jupiter)

  • May 1960: US ends aid program to Cuba, Soviets begin theirs

  • Bay of Pigs, April 1961

  • Operation Mongoose, January 1962

  • June-July 1962, Preparations for missiles begin in Cuba

  • Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962


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WHY THE MISSILE CRISIS?

  • Correct the Nuclear Imbalance?

  • Save the Revolution?

    “On our part, we will do everything possible to stabilize the situation in Cuba defend Cuba against invasion and assure you the possibilities for peacefully building a socialist society.”

    Khrushchev to Castro

    October 28, 1962


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OUTCOMES

  • Germany: 1962-1989: 5,000 leave East Germany (1949-61: 2.6 million)

  • Cuba: Missiles out but Revolution survives

  • Stability in Europe, Instability in the Third World

  • Nuclear Stalemate confirmed, the World of MAD

  • Monolith is no more…

  • Free world divisions…


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TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS AND THE COLD WAR

  • “How much unity should we want? How much diversity can we stand?”

  • Kissinger, 1969


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GLOBAL CONTEXT

  • Cold War Alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact..)

  • Regional Conflicts (Korea, Middle East, Vietnam)

  • International Economy (Marshall Plan, EEC, GATT)




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JOHNSON vs. DE GAULLE

  • “we’ve really got no control over their (France’s) foreign policy.”


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JOHNSON’S DETENTE

  • “Each time I mentioned missiles, Kosygin talked about Arabs and Israelis.”

  • “The Cold War is not over.”


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NIXON & OSTPOLITIK

  • “[there is] a danger that as Brandt pursues the quest for normalization, his advisers and supporters will eventually succeed in leading him to jeopardize Germany’s entire international position… assuming Brandt achieves a degree of normalization, he or his successor may discover before long that the hoped-for benefits fail to develop. Instead of ameliorating the division of Germany, recognition of the G[erman] D[emocratic] R[epublic] may boost its status and strengthen the Communist regime…. More fundamentally, the Soviets having achieved their first set of objectives may then confront the FRG with the proposition that a real and lasting improvement in the FRG’s relations with the GDR and other Eastern countries can only be achieved if Bonn loosens its Western ties.”

    -- Kissinger to Nixon, February 1970

  • “This meant that Washington wanted to have the last word.”

    -- Brandt


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YEAR OF EUROPE

  • "The United States has global interests and responsibilities. Our European allies have regional interests."

  • “For Kissinger to announce a Year of Europe was like for me to stand on Trafalgar Square and announce that we were embarking on a year to save America!”

    -- Edward Heath


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A BALANCE SHEET

  • «In any case, what Europe thinks is basically irrelevant.» Kissinger


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