The Design of Nature Preserves and other Protected Areas. The Design of Nature Preserves and other Protected Areas. Remember: in our section on fragmentation of habitat there were important size and shape concerns. Six Fundamental Design Features for Preserves.
Remember: in our section on fragmentation of habitat there were important size and shape concerns
1. A large preserve will hold more species than a small preserve.
Remember- species area effect from Chapter 5
A. Larger preserves tend to contain a wider range of environmental conditions
B. Large preserves are more secure than small reserves for 3 reasons
1.) they have relatively larger populations that are less likely to go extinct
2.) they have a relatively shorter edge than small preserves
3.) they are less vulnerable to a catastrophic event
2. A single large preserve is preferable to several small reserves of equal total area.
Blue Poison Frog
68 ha reserves of equal total area.
Original area = 100 ha
Original area = 2 plots
of 50 ha each
Original area= 100 ha
given an edge width of 100 m
3. If it is necessary to have multiple small preserves, they should be as close together as possible.
Remember the concept of a metapopulation from chapter 3
4. Arranging small preserves in a cluster is preferable to a linear fashion
5. Connecting the preserves with corridors will make dispersal easier for many species.
100 ha dispersal easier for many species.
Edge= 3545 m
Total Edge = 5013 m
Edge = 4243 m
6. By making preserves as circular as possible, dispersal within the preserve will be enhanced and the negative effects of edge will be minimized
National Parks- Conserving Wildlife? dispersal easier for many species.
Bryce Canyon National Park
Mammal Extinctions in our National Parks dispersal easier for many species.
Park Name Established Extinct Mammals
Bryce Canyon 1923White-tail Jack Rabbit
Lassen Volcanic 1907Nuttal’s Cottontail
Mount Ranier 1899Gray Wolf