Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational Objectives. The taxonomy is hierarchical: 1. Knowledge – ability to recall previously learned material. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational Objectives. The taxonomy is hierarchical: 1. Knowledge – ability to recall previously learned material. 2. Comprehension - ability to grasp the meaning of the material; ability to explain, summarize, predict consequences.

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Taxonomy of Cognitive Educational Objectives. The taxonomy is hierarchical:

1. Knowledge – ability to recall previously learned material.

2. Comprehension - ability to grasp the meaning of the material; ability to explain,

summarize, predict consequences.

3. Application – ability to use material in new situations.

4. Analysis – ability to break down material into component parts, recognize

organizing principles.

5. Synthesis – ability to put parts together to form a new whole.

6. Evaluation – ability to judge the value of material based on definite criteria.

Knowledge is the lowest level of learning; Evaluation is the highest


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1. Method

2. Hypothesis

3. Testable predictions

4. Skepticism

5. Progressive enterprise: Verification/Falsifiability

6. Destination/Journey


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Science moves forward as much by critiquing the conclusions of others,

as by making novel discoveries

Stephen J. Gould


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Overview of Chemotaxis


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Stimulus - Response

  • Environmental stimuli

  • Signal receiver

  • Signal sensor (Kinase)

  • Phospho-relay

  • Response regulator (RR)

  • Response


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Sensor (Kinase)

Response Regulator (RR)

Two-component Signaling


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Pfeffer assay


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Chemotatic response of Salmonella

10 mM L-serine

10 mM phenol

Rubik et al, PNAS 75:2820-4, 1978


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Tracks of swimming bacteria


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Swimming bacteria

  • http://www.rowland.org/labs/bacteria/showmovie.php?mov=swimming_ecoli


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Darkfield movie of motile E. coli

http://www.fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp/labs/namba/npn/index.html


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Tumbling

Running


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Swimming bacteria

  • http://www.rowland.org/labs/bacteria/showmovie.php?mov=fluo_fil_leave


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Namba movies

1, 5

Building a flagellum without from within

Driving the motor with PMF


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Organization of flagellar genes of S. typhimurium into five clusters


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EnvZ kinase

OmpR~P

Glucose

Osmolarity

Heat Shock


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Tracks of swimming bacteria


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A matter of tumble frequency


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Stimulus - Response

  • Environmental stimuli

  • Signal receiver

  • Signal sensor (Kinase)

  • Phospho-relay

  • Response regulator (RR)

  • Response


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The chemotaxis signaling pathway in E. coli/Salmonella


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Different types of chemotaxis receptors: they are clustered at one or the other pole


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Cryo-tomography


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MCP (methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins)


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Chemotactic two-component system

Excitation

Tumbling

OM

CM

CM

OM

Kinase activation

CW

ATP

ADP

M

CheY

Repellents

CheA

CheW

P

MCP

P

Smooth

Swimming

OM

CM

CM

OM

CCW

Kinase inhbition

M

CheY

CheA

Attractants

CheW

MCP

Macnab R. M. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 2003


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Adaptation

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

ATP

ADP

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

P

P

CheZ

P

CheB

P


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Sequential activation and adaptation (via methylation) of a chemoreceptor


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Hazelbauer et al 2008


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Phenotypes of che mutants

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

P

P

Attractants

CheZ

P

CheB

P


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Plate assay for chemotaxis


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Phenotypes of che mutants∆cheA, ∆cheY

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

CCW

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheW

-CH3

Attractants

CheZ

CheB

Smooth

Swimming


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Phenotypes of che mutants∆cheR

OM

CM

OM

CM

CCW

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

Attractants

CheZ

CheB

Smooth

Swimming


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Phenotypes of che mutants∆cheB, ∆cheZ

OM

CheR

CM

OM

CM

CW

ATP

ADP

Repellents

+CH3

M

CheY

CheA

CheW

-CH3

P

P

Attractants

Tumbling


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Summary

  • Bacteria move by rotating flagella

    • CW: tumbling; CCW: running

  • Chemotaxis pathway

    • MCPs: receive the chemical signals

    • CheA: sensor, kinase;

    • CheR: methylation; CheB: demethylation

    • CheY: RR, interacts with flagella motor

      • CheY+P: CW; CheY-P: CCW

    • CheZ: dephosphorylation

  • Phenotypes of ∆che mutants

    • ∆cheA,Y,R: smooth swimming; ∆cheB,Z: tumbling


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