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Radioactive Decay. Nucleus - protons are arranged in -neutrons a pattern. Atoms whose nucleus is to large will emit an alpha particle 4 2 . He.

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Radioactive decay l.jpg

Radioactive Decay

Nucleus - protons are arranged in

-neutrons a pattern


Atoms whose nucleus is to large will emit an alpha particle 4 2 l.jpg

Atoms whose nucleus is to large will emit an alpha particle 4 2

He

If the number of neutrons is to high the neutron will convert into a proton and an electron and emit a Beta particle 0

1


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n particle 4

  • Neutron proton + electron


Some atoms can decay and change into different atoms this is called transmutation l.jpg
Some atoms can decay and change into different atoms. This is called Transmutation

  • Radioactivity- Aluminum will always be Aluminum and Iron will always be Iron

However


Radioactivity is both a sign and a measure of the instability of atoms l.jpg
Radioactivity is both a sign and a measure of the instability of atoms

  • 1. If the nucleus is unstable 1.

    2.

  • 2. The nucleus will emit rays or particles to gain stability.

  • These rays or particles are called Alpha Beta Gamma


Particles that decay are called radioactive l.jpg
Particles that decay are called radioactive instability of atoms

  • 112 elements

  • 270 stable isotopes

  • 2000 unstable isotopes

  • These isotopes want to become stable

  • How?


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Half Life instability of atoms

  • The amount of time it takes half of the unstable nuclei of a sample to decay into a more stable nuclei.


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Half life instability of atoms

  • Each radioactive element has an unique half-life and may serve as a fingerprint for identifying radioactive material.


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What happens when radiation interacts with living things? instability of atoms

  • Depends on the energy of the radiation


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Electromagnetic Spectrum instability of atoms

Ionizing radiation

Non-ionizing radiation


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Electromagnetic radiation instability of atoms


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Non-ionizing Radiation instability of atoms

  • This low energy radiation does not have enough energy to do damage on the molecular level.

  • It does have enough energy to do damage on the cellular level.

  • Example would be Ultra-violet radiation and skin sunburns.


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Ionizing radiation instability of atoms

  • Highest energy and greatest potential for harm (x-ray, gamma ray, Alpha, beta)

  • This high energy knocks off electrons to create ions.

  • These ions rob electrons from nucleic acids or proteins to become stable.

  • These robbed nucleic acids or proteins become cancer and mutations


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