Paths to Global Environmental Sustainability. A workshop for secondary school teachers in Ithaca, NY given by Cornell University Humphrey Fellows. Khalida Jaafar “ The Most Rewarding Efforts are those Protecting Human Lives and the Environment ”.
A workshop for secondary school teachers in Ithaca, NY given by Cornell University Humphrey Fellows
Biomass, is a renewable energy source, that can be used to produce Biofuel and Biogas or for industrial production. Energy biomass can be grown from numerous types of plants, including miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow, sorghum, sugarcane, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). Or, it can be the organic waste of food and agricultural products that contain fibers, sugars, carbohydrates and fats.
Biomass can be converted into biogas (methane) which is used for heating, cooking or electricity generation. The process is conducted by anaerobic digestion of the biomass.
Biofuels are two types. One is produced from crops high in sugar (sugar cane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum) or starch (corn/maize), and then use yeast fermentation to produce ethyl alcohol (ethanol). The second is to grow plants that contain high amounts of vegetable oil, such as oil palm, soybean, algae, jatropha, or pongamia pinnata. When these oils are heated, their viscosity is reduced, and they can be burned directly in a diesel engine, or they can be chemically processed to produce fuels such as biodiesel.
Bioreactors are used to convert biomass into biofuel. A bioreactor is a vessel in which is carried out a chemical process which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic.
“Together” celebrated UNESCO day 4 Nov. 2006 by establishing biogas system in Alsadir city, Baghdad-IRAQ
Loktak Lake may be source of biomass
UNEP, UNDP and FAO: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources
UNICEF: Reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
UNWFP: Improving the productivity and preventing further degradation of the resource base and the food security of the people
4) Capacity Building and Institutional Development of SEE Green – a Civil Society Group with sharp focus on the Environment.
The Earth Day 2007/2008 at The American Center, Yangon
Appropriate methodology for improved land use systems
and promote organic farming techniques
Through My Work through Education in Burma”
Regional and national trainings, advocacy workshops and seminars
Changxiao through Education in Burma” Li, “The Three Gorges Dam Project in China”
The largest hydroelectric power project in the world
Dr. Li working on introducing tree species to conserve water in the riparian zone
Flooding control and drought relief
-Reducing the frequency of major downstream flooding from once every 10 years to once every 100 years
Energy supply (hydropower generation)
-About 100 TWh of generation per year, and about 3% of the total electricity consumption in China
-The freight capacity of the river increased 6 times and reducing shipping costs 25%
Water resources storage
-Capacity of 39.3 km3
Direct reduction of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission (due to electricity & navigation)
-The Three Gorges Dam will potentially reduce the coal consumption by 31 million tonnes per year, cutting the emission of 100 million tons of greenhouse gas
Raising environmental awareness
- Pushing the government and people to think seriously about the environment
Negative impact on environment
-Environmental destruction & water pollution
-Erosion of banks below the dam
Negative impact on social-economic development
-Relocation of local residents
Effects on local culture and aesthetic values