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Occurrence and fate of selected heavy metals in the wastewater treatment plant of Thessaloniki - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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References Abdel-Shafy, H, Hegemann,W, Guldner,C, (1996). Fate of heavy metals via chemical-biological upgrading of sewage sludge treatment plants. Environmental Management and Health, 713, 28-36

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  • References

  • Abdel-Shafy, H, Hegemann,W, Guldner,C, (1996). Fate of heavy metals via chemical-biological upgrading of sewage sludge treatment plants. Environmental Management and Health, 713, 28-36

  • D. Voutsa, G. Zaxariadis, N. Gantidis, C. Samara, Th. Kouimtzis. (1996) "Evaluation of municipal and industrial wastewater sludges for agricultural purposes " Fresenius Envir. Bull, 5, 1-6

  • E. Manoli and C. Samara, (1996) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waste Waters and Sewage Sludge: Extraction and Clean-Up for HPLC Analysis with Fluorescence Detection, Chromatographia, Vol. 43, No 3/4, 135-142

  • E. Manoli and C. Samara, (1999), Occurrence and Mass Balance of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons in the Thessaloniki Sewage Treatment Plant, J. Envir. Qual. Vol. 28, 176-187

  • Katsoyiannis and C. Samara, Determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants in sewage and sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of Thessaloniki, Greece, 2nd European Conference on Pesticides and related organic micropollutants in the environment, 27-29 September 2002, Corfu, Greece

  • Lazzari, L, Sperni, L, Bertin, P, Pavoni, B, (2000) Correlation between inorganic (heavy metals) and organic ( PCBs and PAHs) micropollutant concentrations during sewage sludge composting processes. Chemosphere 41, 427- 435

  • M. Angelidis and R. J. Gibbs, (1989), Chemistry of metals in anaerobically treated sludges, Wat. Res. Vol. 23, No1, pp. 29-33

  • Zorpas, A, Constantinides, T, Vlyssides, A, Haralambous, I, Loizidou, M, 2000. Heavy metal uptake by natural zeolite and metals partitioning in sewage sludge compost. Bioresource Technology, 72 (2000), 113-119

  • Conclusions

  • Heavy metals were determined at all the different stages of an activated sludge WWTP at frequencies between 90-100%

  • Most abundant HM in wastewater was Ni while Zn was the most abundant metal in sludge

  • Least abundant metal was Cd

  • Removal rates ranged from 21% for Fe to 56% for Cu. These rates are considered to be satisfactory since no coaggulant is used in the plant

    Fe < Pb < Zn  Mn < Ni < Cr < Cd < Cu

  • Concentrations of H.Ms found for the Final sludge are below the maximum permissible concentrations for safe agricultural use

Occurrence and fate of selected heavy metals

in the wastewater treatment plant of Thessaloniki, Greece

Michalis Karvelas, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Constantini Samara

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry,

Environmental Pollution Control Laboratory, Gr-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

Introduction

Heavy metals are considered to be some of the most hazardous pollutants for the environment, due to the fact that they are toxic and some of them carcinogenic. They are not degradable; on the contrary they bio-concentrate and thus enter the trophic chain.

In this work, the occurrence and fate of 8 heavy metals in the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Thessaloniki is studied. Major objectives of this work were to study the presence of heavy metals in this plant and to estimate their removal rates along the sewage treatment

Heavy metals may end to a wastewater treatment plant mainly as industrial products. At the end of their life as useful industrial products, they are discharged in wastes. Products that contain high amounts of heavy metals and they are often disposed to wastes, are batteries, dental amalgams, thermometers, tubes, lamps etc. Heavy metals may also be lost in wastes during production and use phases.

Abbreviations:

WWTP, wastewater treatment plant; HMs, heavy metals; RW, raw wastewater; PSE, effluent from primary sedimentation tank; SSE, effluent from secondary sedimentation tank; PS, primary sludge; AS, activated sludge; FS, final sludge.

Results and Discussion

Table 1: Concentrations of Heavy Metals in the wastewater of the Thessaloniki WWTP

Metal RW (μg/L) PSE (μg/L) SSE (μg/L)

Mean Std Mean Std mean std

Cu 79.2 34.9 58.1 36.8 32.9 5.8

Cr 39.6 12 24.5 11.8 20.4 3.5

Ni 766.7 199.9 604.1 272.4 424.5 97.1

Pb 38.9 9.4 31.1 11.9 26.8 3.6

Mn 67.2 12.3 25.7 4.3 19.3 2.4

Fe 476.6 86.7 450.2 77.9 377.5 46.5

Cd 3.3 1.1 2.3 0.9 1.49 0.7

Zn 465.7 144.4 380.6 49.9 269.8 52.9

Table 2: Concentrations of Heavy Metals in the sludges of the Thessaloniki WWTP

Metal PS (μg/g d.m) AS (μg/g d.m) FS (μg/g d.m)

Mean Std Mean Std Mean Std

Cu 1037.1 211.9 909.2 165.9 1216.1 222.5

Cr 169.1 61.2 314.9 129.5 366.1 104.8

Ni 368.3 122.4 305.6 158.1 305.6 76.2

Pb 278.7 79 162.7 31.4 325.8 83.5

Mn 826.2 278.1 732.7 172.1 1141.5 180.5

Fe 2405.1 634.6 3582.7 626.9 3325.6 261.1

Cd 10.1 3.9 10.1 3.7 10.2 4.3

Zn 3516.1 31.4 4427.4 590.9 4465.8 445.7

Removal Rates of H.Ms

Primary (%) Secondary (%) Total(%)

Cu 26,63 43,37 58,45

Ni 21,21 29,72 44,63

Cr 38,24 16,66 48,53

Pb 19,92 13,96 31,10

Mn 23,45 24,89 42,50

Fe 5,54 16,17 20,81

Cd 30,31 34,79 54,55

Zn 18,27 29,10 42,06

COD 42,84 91,41 95,09

BOD 47,70 96,22 98,02

SS 50,22 96,44 98,23

TOC 0,70 73,70 73,88

Figure 3:Removal rates of all H.Ms in the WWTP of Thessaloniki

  • The WWTP of Thessaloniki - Sampling

  • The WWTP of Thessaloniki treats daily 120,000 – 150,000 tons of municipal wastewaters

  • About 5-10% of the total flow is contributed by industry

  • No use of coagulant is performed

  • Sampling was conducted in two one - week campaigns during November and December 2001

  • Given that the residence time of wastewater in the WWTP was about 24 hours, this sampling rate enabled calculation of the mass balance of heavy metals throughout the treatment plant

  • Samples were collected from 6 points: RW, PSE, SSE, PS, AS, FS

Better correlation in the removal rates appears for:

Fe-Cu: 0.848

Pb-Cr: 0.813

Fe-Pb: 0.874

Cd-Pb: 0.831

Figure 1: Mean Concentrations of H.Ms in wastewater samples

Figure 1: Flow chart of the Thessaloniki Wastewater Treatment Plant

Figure 4: Correlation of the removal rates between all the individual parameters

Figure 2: Mean Concentrations of H.Ms in sludge samples

Table 3: Maximum permissible concentrations of H.Ms in sludge for use in agriculture

CountryHeavy Metals (μg/g)

Cd Cr Cu Pb Ni Zn

Greece 20-40 1500 1750 1200 400 4000

European Union 1750 1200 400

USA 4300 840 420

Austria 3 250 500 250 100 1200

Belgium 5 200 500 1000 100 1500

Denmark 0,4 120 30

Germany 10 900 800 900 200 2500

France 20 1000 1000 800 200 3000

Luxembourg 1,5 100 100 150 50 400

Holland 1 50 75 100 30 200

Spain 10 400 50 300 120 1100

Italy 10 600 600 500 200 2500


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