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Mammalian Reproductive Strategies. Prototheria (monotremes). Metatheria (marsupials). Eutheria (placentals). Patterns of Social Behavior. Sociability: important characteristic for most primates Continuous interactions among a group of individuals. Advantages of Group Living.

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Mammalian Reproductive Strategies

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Mammalian reproductive strategies l.jpg

Mammalian Reproductive Strategies


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Prototheria (monotremes)


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Metatheria (marsupials)


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Eutheria (placentals)


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Patterns of Social Behavior

Sociability: important characteristic for most primates

Continuous interactions among a group of individuals


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Advantages of Group Living

  • 1. Observational learning.

    • Reduces necessity of individual trial-and-error learning.

  • 2. Possibile genetic resistance to disease and parasites.

  • 3. Efficient location of food resources

  • 4. Increases the reproductive fitness of group members.


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Social groupings


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What kind of social grouping?


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Polygyny: one reproductively mature (RM) male, several RM females

Gelada baboon


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Lip retraction: threat display


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  • Individuals are solitary

  • Males are intolerant of one another.

  • Single male establishes a large territory.

  • Contains several females

  • Each female has her own separate home range


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  • Polygyny

  • Extensive home ranges


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Multi-male; multi-female

groups

Overlapping territories


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  • Multi-male, multi-female groups

  • Non-aggressive


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  • Human societies extremely diverse

  • Monogamy

  • Polygamy

    • polygyny and polyandry

  • For most of human evolution - and for most women in the world today, menstruation is a rare occurrence

  • Repetitive pregnancies and long periods of lactation


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Fundamental intersexual reproductive strategies

  • Female.

  • Maximize resources available to her and her offspring.

  • Female primates spend most of their adult lives pregnant, lactating, and caring for offspring.

  • High energy demands.

  • Male.

  • Produce many offspring and make sure they are yours.

  • Non-human primates: androgen levels fluctuate in response to female receptivity.


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Mammalian female reproductive cycle

Female primates

Hormonal suppression of sexual cycles


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Nonhuman Cultural Behavior

  • Learned behavior shared between generations. t

  • Chimpanzees: tool use

  • Spearing of bushbabies

  • Termite fishing with modified stems and twigs.

  • Have a preconceived idea of what the finished tool needs to be in order to be useful.

  • May make the tool in advance of the opportunity for use.

  • Preparing for the future. Requires planning and forethought.


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Meat component of chimpanzee diet


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Bone review


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Genetic similarities and differences

Human and ape chromosomes


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A phyletic classification of families


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mtDNA

4,700 base sequence

Genes for 11 tRNAs

6 proteins

Human-chimpanzee relationship

1023 more likely than

Chimpanzee-gorilla relationship

Y DNA

Base sequence for

Testis-specific protein Y

Autosomal DNA

Base sequence of

Beta-globin gene cluster


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A cladistic classification of families


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