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Section Outline. Section 37-1. 37–1 The Circulatory System A. Functions of the Circulatory System B. The Heart 1. Circulation Through the Body 2. Circulation Through the Heart 3. Heartbeat C. Blood Vessels 1. Arteries 2. Capillaries 3. Veins D. Blood Pressure

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Section Outline

Section 37-1

37–1 The Circulatory System

A. Functions of the Circulatory System

B. The Heart

1. Circulation Through the Body

2. Circulation Through the Heart

3. Heartbeat

C. Blood Vessels

1. Arteries

2. Capillaries

3. Veins

D. Blood Pressure

E. Diseases of the Circulatory System

1. High Blood Pressure

2. Consequences of Atherosclerosis

3. Circulatory System Health


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37–1 The Circulatory System

A. Functions of the Circulatory System

• The human circulatory system consists of the heart, a series of blood vessels, and the blood that flows through them


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B. The Heart

• A picture of the structures of the Heart is found on page 944 in your book

• Myocardium – thick layer or muscle that the powerful contractions pump blood through the circulatory system.


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Aorta

Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body

Superior Vena Cava

Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium

Pulmonary Arteries

Bring oxygen-poor blood to the lungs

Pulmonary Veins

Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium

Pulmonary Valve

Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery

Aortic Valve

Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta

Mitral Valve

Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle

Tricuspid Valve

Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle

Inferior Vena Cava

Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium

Figure 37-3 The Structures of the Heart

Section 37-1

Left Atrium

Right Atrium

Left Ventricle

Septum

Right Ventricle


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1. Circulation Through the Body

 Pulmonary circulation – pathway of oxygen-poor blood that pumps from heart to lungs

 Systemic circulation – pathway oxygen rich blood is pumped from the heart to rest of the body


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Capillaries of head and arms

Superior vena cava

Pulmonary artery

Aorta

Pulmonary vein

Capillaries of left lung

Capillaries of right lung

Inferior vena cava

Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs

Figure 37-2 The Circulatory System

Section 37-1


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2. Circulation Through the Heart

 Valves – flaps of connective tissue between atria and the ventricles

 Creates one way traffic of blood


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3. Heartbeat

 Two networks of muscle fibers in the heart, one in the atria and the other in the ventricles

 Pacemaker – the nodes that start heart muscle contraction

 The Sinoatrial node starts the wave for the heart muscle contraction


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The Sinoatrial Node

Section 37-1

Contraction of Atria

Contraction of Ventricles

Sinoatrial (SA) node

Conducting fibers

Atrioventricular (AV) node


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C. Blood Vessels

Aorta – the first of a series of blood vessels that carry the blood on its round trip through body and back to the heart

1. Arteries

 Arteries - large vessels that carry blood form the heart to the tissues of the body

 Most of the time filled with oxygen-rich blood


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2. Capillaries

 Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels.

 The walls can be 1 cell thick

 Bring nutrients and oxygen to the needed areas and absorb waste products and carbon dioxide

3. Veins

 Veins – vessels that return blood back to the heart

 many are located between skeletal muscle this way every time you contract you push blood back to the heart


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Endothelium

Arteriole

Venule

Connective tissue

Connective tissue

Smooth muscle

Smooth muscle

Endothelium

Valve

Endothelium

Figure 37-5 The Three Types of Blood Vessels

Section 37-1

Vein

Artery

Capillary


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D. Blood Pressure

• The heart by makes fluid pressure

• A normal blood pressure reading is 120/80


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• The first number is the systolic pressure – force felt in arteries when ventricles contract

• The 2nd number is the diastolic pressure – force felt in the arteries when ventricles relax

• Blood pressure is normally regulated by the medulla oblongata and autonomic nervous system


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E. Diseases of the Circulatory System felt in arteries when ventricles contract

Atherosclerosis – condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries. This can cause a blockage in the blood vessels causing a heart attack of stroke

1. High Blood Pressure

A.K.A hypertention, forces the heart to work harder and might wear out quicker

2. Consequences of Atherosclerosis

Blood clots, can be seen blood shot eyes

Heart attack

Stroke


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3. Circulatory System Health felt in arteries when ventricles contract

Cardiovascular diseases are easier to prevent that to cure

Exercise, control weight, reduce stress

Diet of low saturated fat and cholesterol

Cardiovascular diseases are also reduced by not smoking


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End of Custom Shows felt in arteries when ventricles contract

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