Knowledge Economy. (Case of Russia). Makarov Valery L. (CEMI, Moscow) E-mail: email@example.com ; Web: http//www.cemi.rssi.ru/. Plan of Presentation. Indicators of Knowledge Economy Who measures knowledge. 3 . Difficulties for cross countries’ comparisons
(Case of Russia)
Makarov Valery L. (CEMI, Moscow)
Plan of Presentation
Points of Attraction
1. Centers of Knowledge Production. Concentration of intellectual capital.
2. New institutional structure in the epoch of Knowledge Society.
3. Generation of demand on Knowledge – direct function of state.
4. Tacit Knowledge – competitive advantage of Russia.
Investments into the sector
of knowlegde production
% of GDP
PPi ,Progressive Project institute, USA
Annually issued started by 1999 года
The 2002 State New Economy Index.
21 indicators across 50 statesof US as a base for Integrated index
Centers of Knowledge production
Production of Knowledge is located in few centers.
Consumption of Knowledge is distributed evenly across states
according to PPi measurement.
OECD department, number of international associations, government and private institutions
Production of sectors with high rate of technology
in billions of PPP dollars
Russia 1999 data
High technology's products plus services
in billions of PPP dollars
Transfer of technologies
in millions of PPP dollars
Examples of empirical studies
First phase: collection of data, second phase: empirical analysis, third phase: developing theory
3.Bloom N., Griffith R., and Van Reenen J. (2002) “Do R&D tax credits work Evidence from
a panel data of countries 1979 – 1997” Journal of Public Economics 85, pp.1 –31. :
The paper gives an empirical proof that investments of private sector to R&D depend on tax holidays.
The paper based on data of 9 OECDcountries for the period of 19 years (1979 – 1997).
The result: 10% of tax free adds 1% for R&D investments in short run and 10% in long run.
Share of expenditures on basic research
in total R&D expentitures ( %)
Distribution of generated profit
Tobin's Q =
Average Q for Russian companies less then 0.3
Paragraph International Q = 40
Introduced by Polanyi, M. (1966)
The Tacit Dimension, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Specific features of Russian culture: tacit knowledge must be competitive advantageof Russia.
Follow traditions, transfer of knowledge on personal basis, less division of labor.Informal (groups, family, firms, clubs) education.
Measurement, capitalization of institution’s tacit knowledge
An Example of Breakthrough
New features of Knowledge Economy
Laboratory – mediator –
– consumer of knowledge
Explicit division of labor
Market of knowledge is
organized by mediator
Knowledge consumer participatesin creation of knowledge
Market of products (knowledge itself)substitutes by market of services
The concept “Knowledge Society” perfectly fits into the new system
Competitive environment in the
field of economic research
Lessons for Russia