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Gender. Women are getting college degrees at higher rates than men, so why are they still complaining?. Gender. Individual Interactional Institutional Are individuals able to choose to escape gender? . Do men and women experience economic and political systems equally in the U.S.?. Economy

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Gender

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Gender

Women are getting college degrees at higher rates than men, so why are they still complaining?


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Gender

  • Individual

  • Interactional

  • Institutional

  • Are individuals able to choose to escape gender?


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Do men and women experience economic and political systems equally in the U.S.?

  • Economy

  • Labor Market

  • Educational System

  • Health and Illness

  • Access to social institutions

  • If not, how is gender inequality maintained?


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Gender Stratification: those social systems in which socioeconomic resources and political power are distributed on the basis of one’s sex and gender.

Objective Indices

  • Income

  • Educational attainment

  • Wealth

  • Occupational status

  • Mortality rates

  • Access to social institutions


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Education

  • Sadker and Sadker (1994)—Failing at Fairness

    • Boys receive more and better attention

    • Girls invisible and praised for feminine traits, not for intellectual prowess

  • NPR (2006)—Boys Falling Behind

  • Boys continue to have greater payoff for education


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Education and Earnings Ratio By Gender at specified earnings percentile 2000


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Occupational Segregation

  • Occupations are segregated by race and gender.

  • This phenomena has its roots in the ideal of a two-parent family with a stay-at-home mom and a breadwinner father.

  • Immigrants and/or non-whites function as a pool of cheap labor (split labor market creates racial tension and gender resentment)


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Why Should We Care?

  • Pay

  • Status

  • Freedom to Choose

  • As a society, we want to realize our full potential. Inequality keeps us from tapping all available talent.


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Occupational Segregation Pay Inequities

  • Feminized occupations pay less.

  • Women still suffer from the wage gap in predominately male occupations.

  • Men also pay a penalty if they choose to enter feminized occupations

  • Data


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Feminized Occupations Pay Less


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Wage Gap in Predominately Female Occupations


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Wage Gap in Predominately Male Occupations


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Segregation Career Opportunities

  • Glass ceiling

  • Glass escalator

  • Networks: Social Capital

  • Status Gap over the life course


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Responses

  • Affirmative Action

  • Equal Pay for Equal Work

  • Comparable Worth

  • Place economic value on unpaid household labor.


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Problem

  • All of these policy programs can accomplish a great deal both symbolically and effectively, however, as long as gender continues to be reproduced in ways that reproduce inequality, the struggle will continue. Gender inequality will change form, but not function.


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