OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS
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OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS. AN INTRODUCTORY COURSE. WELCOME. BASIS FOR THIS COURSE. THOUSANDS OF WORKERS CAN BENEFIT FROM ERGONOMICS DAILY EXPOSURE TO NUMEROUS ERGONOMIC STRESSORS DAILY EXPOSURE TO NUMEROUS PHYSICAL HAZARDS EFFICIENCY CAN BE GREATLY IMPROVED

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OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS

AN INTRODUCTORY

COURSE

WELCOME


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BASIS FOR THIS COURSE

  • THOUSANDS OF WORKERS CAN BENEFIT FROM ERGONOMICS

  • DAILY EXPOSURE TO NUMEROUS ERGONOMIC STRESSORS

  • DAILY EXPOSURE TO NUMEROUS PHYSICAL HAZARDS

  • EFFICIENCY CAN BE GREATLY IMPROVED

  • OSHA SAFETY STANDARDS REQUIRE:

    • Establishment of a “safety” program

    • Training be conducted

    • Ergonomic stressors be assessed

    • Hazards and precautions be explained


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The study of man’s relationship with his or her

workplace.

Fitting the task to the person rather than forcing

him/her to adapt to the work environment.

Designing the workplace to prevent occupational

injury and illness.

ERGONOMICS DEFINED

VARIOUS AUTHORS DEFINE ERGONOMICS AS:


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Discovering the capabilities and limitations of the human body.

The art and science that addresses workers’ job performance and well-being in relation to their job tasks, tools, equipment and environment.

The study of the relationship between people and machines or between employees and their environment.

ERGONOMICS DEFINED

(Continued)

VARIOUS AUTHORS DEFINE ERGONOMICS AS:


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The study of the interaction between the worker and the process at the workplace.

ERGONOMICS DEFINED

(Continued)

VARIOUS AUTHORS DEFINE ERGONOMICS AS:

WHAT OTHER DEFINITIONS

HAVE YOU HEARD?


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Improve quality. process at the workplace.

Improve absenteeism.

Maintain a healthier work force.

Reduce injury and illness rates.

Acceptance of high-turnover jobs.

Workers feel good about their work.

Reduce workers’ compensation costs.

Elevate OSHA compliance to a higher level of awareness.

SAFETY

STATISTICS

ERGONOMICS IS IMPORTANT

ERGONOMICS PLAYS A ROLE IN APPROXIMATELY 50% OF ALL WORKPLACE INJURIES. ERGONOMICS WILL HELP:


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ERGONOMICS process at the workplace. A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH

THINK ABOUT THE NUMBER OF WAYS ERGONOMICS IMPACTS OUR DAILY LIFE!


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WORK STATION DESIGN process at the workplace.

TOOL SELECTION AND DESIGN

OFFICE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT

VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINALS (VDT’S) SAFETY

BACK INJURY REDUCTION AND PREVENTION

MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING IMPROVEMENT

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDER (CTD) REDUCTION

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS

APPLICATIONS


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MEDICAL MANAGEMENT process at the workplace.

Follow-up

Recordkeeping

Symptom surveys

Health surveillance

Classify job demands

Disability management

Establish treatment protocols

Periodic reviews with physicians

Early symptoms reporting mechanism

Health care providers must be part of the program

KEY PROGRAM ELEMENTS(Continued)


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ERGONOMICS WORKING GROUP process at the workplace.

WRITTEN PROGRAM

EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

TOP MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT

REGULAR PROGRAM ACTIVITY, REVIEW AND EVALUATION

KEY PROGRAM ELEMENTS(Continued)


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HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL process at the workplace.

PPE REDUCTION

ENGINEERING CONTROLS

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS

OPTIMIZATION OF WORK PRACTICES

DANGER

EYE PROTECTION

REQUIRED BEYOND

THIS POINT

KEY PROGRAM ELEMENTS(Continued)


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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND ERGONOMIC CONTROLS process at the workplace.

  • ENGINEERING CONTROLS FIRST CHOICE

    •  Work Station Design  Tool Selection and Design

    •  Process Modification  Mechanical Assist

  •  ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS SECOND CHOICE

    •  Training Programs  Job Rotation/Enlargement

    •  Pacing  Policy and Procedures

  •  PERSONNEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LAST CHOICE

    •  Gloves  Wraps

    •  Shields  Eye Protection

    •  Non-Slip Shoes  Aprons


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OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS: process at the workplace.

Occupational risk factors are defined as any attribute of a job or task that we know increases the probability of injury or illness.

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND ERGONOMIC CONTROLS

  • INAPPROPRIATE

1. Force - Including- Internal or External

2. Posture - Such as - Extreme Twisting or Bending

3. Repetition - Including- Muscle Group Overexertion

4. Insufficient Rest - Including- Muscle Group Overexertion


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WORKSITE ANALYSIS IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR MAIN PARTS: process at the workplace.

WORKSITE ANALYSIS

1. Gathering information from available sources.

2. Conducting baseline screening surveys to determine which jobs need a closer analysis.

3. Performing ergonomic job hazard analyses of those work stations with identified risk factors.

4. After implementing control measures, conducting periodic surveys and follow-up to evaluate changes.


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WORKSITE ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

SYMPTOM SURVEY

1. NOTE AREAS OF PAIN

OR DISCOMFORT!

2. WHAT DO YOU FEEL IS

THE SOURCE?

3. WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL

CHANGES WOULD HELP?

4. WHAT OTHER FEEDBACK

CAN BE GATHERED?

BACK

FRONT


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INCIDENCE RATES process at the workplace.: incidence rates for upper extremity disorders and/or back injuries should be calculated by counting the incidences of CTDs and reporting the incidences per 100 full time workers per year per facility.

(NUMBER OF NEW CASES (200,000 WORK HRS*) PER FACILITY

NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED/FACILITY/YR

INCIDENCE RATE

INCIDENCE RATES

* 200,000 = APPROXIMATE ANNUAL WORK HOURS FOR 100 WORKERS.

* THE SAME METHOD SHOULD BE APPLIED TO DEPARTMENTS,

PRODUCTION LINES, OR JOB TYPES WITHIN EACH FACILITY.


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2 X 200,000 process at the workplace.

100 X (50 X 40 hrs)

IR =

400,000

200,000

IR = 2 CASES OF CARPAL TUNNEL PER 100 PERSON-YEARS OF EXPOSURE

IR =

INCIDENCE RATES(Continued)

 SAMPLE INCIDENCE RATE CALCULATION:

(NUMBER OF NEW CASES (200,000 WORK HRS*) PER FACILITY

NUMBER OF HOURS WORKED/FACILITY/YR

IF YOU EXPERIENCED 2 CARPAL TUNNEL CASES LAST YEAR, IN A POPULATION OF 100 EMPLOYEES. WHAT IS THE INCIDENCE RATE?

* 200,000 = APPROXIMATE ANNUAL WORK HOURS FOR 100 WORKERS.

* THE SAME METHOD SHOULD BE APPLIED TO DEPARTMENTS, PRODUCTION LINES, OR

JOB TYPES WITHIN EACH FACILITY.


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ANTHROPOMETRY DEFINED process at the workplace.

  • ANTHROPOMETRY:

    • The technology of measuring and quantifying various human physical traits such as size, weight, proportion, mobility and strength.


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ANTHROPOMETRY DEFINED process at the workplace.

  • ENGINEERING

  • ANTHROPOMETRY:

    • The application of anthropometric data to equipment, workplace and job design to enhance the efficiency, safety and comfort of the operator.


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MEN WOMEN process at the workplace.

Physical

Dimension 5th 50th 95th 5th 50th 95th

1. Stature 64.0 62.5 73.0 59.3 63.4 67.3

2. Eye ht. 59.6 64.2 68.7 55.3 59.3 63.4

3. Hip ht. 33.1 36.2 39.4 29.1 31.9 42.7

4. Elbow ht. 39.6 42.9 46.5 36.6 39.6 42.7

ANTHROPOMETRIC DIMENSIONS

Inches

Abbreviated Table of Anthropometric Dimensions


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ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS process at the workplace.

  • PERSONAL RISK FACTORS

    • 1. Age

    • 2. Gender

    • 3. Attitude

    • 4. Training

    • 5. Strength

    • 6. Work method

    • 7. Anthropometry


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ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS process at the workplace.

Continued

  • JOB RISK FACTORS

    • 1. Weight of load

    • 2. Location/size of load

    • 3. Frequency of the Task

    • 4. Duration and pace of cycle

    • 5. Stability of load

    • 6. Coupling of load

    • 7. Travel distances of worker

    • 8. Reach distances of worker

    • 9. Symmetry between worker and the object held


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ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS process at the workplace.

Continued

JOB RISK FACTORS

  • 10. Static work posture

    • a) Standing

    • b) Sitting

  • 11. Work platforms or stairs

  • 12. Torso flexion (bending)

    • a) Mild (up to 45 degrees)

    • b) Severe (greater than 45 degrees)

  • 13. Work heights (too high or too low)

  • 14. Floor surfaces (wet, smooth, vibration)


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ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS process at the workplace.

Continued

JOB RISK FACTORS

  • 15. Environment

    • a) Hot (sweat, reduced grip, fatigue)

    • b) Cold (gloves reduce grip by as much as 30%)

  • 16. Lighting

  • a) posture problems (because of inability to see)

  • 17. Noise/vibration

    • a) Frequency very important

    • b) Can amplify through the body


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WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH YOUR JOB? process at the workplace.

ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS

Continued


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

UNIT LOADS:

DEFINED AS:

The unit to be moved or handled at any one time.

THE CONTAINER, CARRIER, OR SUPPORT USED

TO MOVE MATERIALS MUST BE INCLUDED AS

PART OF THE UNIT LOAD.


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

FACTORS AFFECTING UNIT LOADS

  • THE MATERIAL TO BE UTILIZED

  • THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL TO BE HANDLED

  • THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE MATERIAL TO DAMAGE

  • THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE UNIT LOAD IS HANDLED

  • THE RECEIVING, STORING, SHIPPING, AND HANDLING METHODS

  • THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS TO WHICH THE LOAD IS EXPOSED


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

DESIGNING THE UNIT LOAD

  • OPTIMIZE THE WEIGHT OF THE LOAD

  • REDUCE THE SIZE OF THE LOAD

  • INSURE STABILITY OF THE LOAD

  • OPTIMIZE LOAD COUPLING

- HAND TO LOAD

- FOOT TO FLOOR


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

  • Fundamental Movements or acts

  • “ELEMENT”

- Search - Inspect

- Select - Assemble

- Grasp - Disassemble

- Reach - Delay (unavoidable)

- Move - Delay (avoidable)

- Hold - Plan

- Position - Rest (overcome fatigue)


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  • Example:

  • 1. Assemble new box

  • 2. Put bottles in box from conveyor

  • 3. Stack boxes on pallet

  • 4. Go to step 1

JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS

Continued

DEFINITION OF TERMS:

  • The time required to complete one sequence of tasks

  • sub- tasks, or elements.


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

TASK ANALYSIS

  • IDENTIFY THE JOB TO STUDY

  • COLLECT THE DATA

  • EVALUATE THE DATA

  • FORMULATE CONTROL MEASURES


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

IDENTIFYING THE JOB TO STUDY

  • ACCIDENT INVESTIGATIONS

  • ACCIDENT STATISTICS

  • COMPLAINTS & OPERATOR FEEDBACK

  • PRODUCTION BOTTLENECKS, HIGH ERRORS

  • HIGH EMPLOYEE TURNOVER JOBS


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

COLLECTING THE DATA

  • DIRECT OBSERVATION

  • VIDEO TAPE

  • ACTION PHOTOGRAPHS

  • DOCUMENTARY ACCOUNTS

  • ACCIDENT STATISTICS


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

EVALUATING THE DATA

  • TASK DESCRIPTION

  • SUB-TASK DESCRIPTION

  • ELEMENT DESCRIPTION

  • RISK FACTOR/HAZARD IDENTIFICATION


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

FORMULATING CONTROL MEASURES

  • APPLICATION OF ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLES

  • CORRECTIVE ACTION FOR NON-COMPLIANCE

  • ELIMINATE OR REDUCE EXPOSURE


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JOB AND TASK ANALYSIS process at the workplace.

Continued

TASK ANALYSIS FORM

  • TASK DESCRIPTION - Action Being Performed

  • LEFT HAND - Usage

  • RIGHT HAND - Usage

  • FREQUENCY - Usually per minute

  • NOTES - Supporting information

  • POSTURE - Acceptable to extreme

  • FORCE - High, Medium, Low

  • DURATION - Length of Stressor


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