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Energy Transformations. Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review Mrs. Kirby. Introduction. From the key vocabulary, circle the words that you can already define or use in a sentence. Write down two or three things that you think are important for you to know today.

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Energy transformations l.jpg

Energy Transformations

Georgia High School Graduation Test:

Science Review

Mrs. Kirby


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Introduction

  • From the key vocabulary, circle the words that you can already define or use in a sentence.

  • Write down two or three things that you think are important for you to know today.


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Sample Question

  • Describe the process of radioactive decay in which the unstable nucleus of a radioactive isotope spontaneously decays.


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Radioactivity

  • the spontaneous process that occurs when an unstable nucleus releases particles and/or energy to form a more stable nucleus


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Radioisotopes

  • unstable radioactive nucleus

  • examples:

    • carbon-14

    • deuterium (hydrogen with 1 neutron)

    • all elements with atomic numbers above 83


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Radioactive Decay

  • radioactive decay = the release of subatomic particles by radioactive isotopes

  • alpha and beta decay result in transformed atom

  • gamma decay results in same atom with release of energy

ALPHA DECAY

BETA DECAY

GAMMA DECAY


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Sample Question

  • Calculate the amount of radioactive substance that will remain after one half-life.


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Half-life

  • the time it takes for half of the radioactive particles in a radioactive nucleus to decay

  • example:

    • If an original sample of carbon-14 has a mass of 10 grams and its half-life is 5700 years, how many grams of carbon-14 would remain after one half-life?

      • ANSWER: 5 grams


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Sample Question

  • What is the effect of an increase in temperature on the motion of atoms?


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Temperature

  • a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules

  • the higher the temperature, the faster the molecules


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Sample Question

  • Compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of shape, volume, and movement of particles.



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Sample Question

  • What is the effect of temperature change on the phases of matter?


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Phase Changes

  • to increase the temperature of a substance energy must be absorbed by that substance

  • to decrease the temperature of a substance energy must be released by that substance




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Sample Question

  • Give examples and describe the two forms of energy encountered in a system between any of the following: chemical, heat, light, electrical, and mechanical.


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Types of Energy

  • potential energy = stored energy due to position or chemical composition

  • kinetic energy = energy due to motion



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Heat Energy

  • Heat can be transferred through:

    • Conduction = when objects touch

    • Convection = when matter moves

    • Radiation = in the form of waves (does not require matter)

  • Conductors = easily transmit energy

    • Example: metals

  • Insulators = do not easily transmit energy

    • Example: gases such as air


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Conversion of Energy

  • The sum of KE and PE is constant if there is no friction.

  • Realistically, some energy is transferred to heat due to the friction between the wheels and the track.


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Discussion

  • The molecular theory of molecules states that the velocity of molecules correlates to the temperature of the system. How are the actions of a group of people affected by the temperature of a room? How are those actions similar to and different from atoms at the same temperature?


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Lesson Summarized

  • Write a sentence that explains the system discussed.

  • Draw a graphic organizer that shows the relationship of the parts to the whole.


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Short Quiz Answers

  • Half-time is the time it takes for half of the radioactive particles in a radioactive nucleus to decay.

  • All isotopes have the same atomic number but different atomic masses.

  • Some isotopes are radioactive due to the different number of neutrons.

  • See the table on sources of energy.

  • Ice, water, and steam all have the same chemical composition (H2O) but each are in a different phase.


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More Practice

  • From the blue book, complete the following questions:

    • p.53 (26,27,30)

    • p.61 (1-4)

    • p.62-63 (6-8)

    • p.64 (11-14)

    • p.68 (21-25)


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