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# Energy Transformations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Energy Transformations. Georgia High School Graduation Test: Science Review Mrs. Kirby. Introduction. From the key vocabulary, circle the words that you can already define or use in a sentence. Write down two or three things that you think are important for you to know today.

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### Energy Transformations

Science Review

Mrs. Kirby

• From the key vocabulary, circle the words that you can already define or use in a sentence.

• Write down two or three things that you think are important for you to know today.

• Describe the process of radioactive decay in which the unstable nucleus of a radioactive isotope spontaneously decays.

• the spontaneous process that occurs when an unstable nucleus releases particles and/or energy to form a more stable nucleus

• examples:

• carbon-14

• deuterium (hydrogen with 1 neutron)

• all elements with atomic numbers above 83

• radioactive decay = the release of subatomic particles by radioactive isotopes

• alpha and beta decay result in transformed atom

• gamma decay results in same atom with release of energy

ALPHA DECAY

BETA DECAY

GAMMA DECAY

• Calculate the amount of radioactive substance that will remain after one half-life.

• the time it takes for half of the radioactive particles in a radioactive nucleus to decay

• example:

• If an original sample of carbon-14 has a mass of 10 grams and its half-life is 5700 years, how many grams of carbon-14 would remain after one half-life?

• What is the effect of an increase in temperature on the motion of atoms?

• a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules

• the higher the temperature, the faster the molecules

• Compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of shape, volume, and movement of particles.

• What is the effect of temperature change on the phases of matter?

• to increase the temperature of a substance energy must be absorbed by that substance

• to decrease the temperature of a substance energy must be released by that substance

• Give examples and describe the two forms of energy encountered in a system between any of the following: chemical, heat, light, electrical, and mechanical.

• potential energy = stored energy due to position or chemical composition

• kinetic energy = energy due to motion

• Heat can be transferred through:

• Conduction = when objects touch

• Convection = when matter moves

• Radiation = in the form of waves (does not require matter)

• Conductors = easily transmit energy

• Example: metals

• Insulators = do not easily transmit energy

• Example: gases such as air

• The sum of KE and PE is constant if there is no friction.

• Realistically, some energy is transferred to heat due to the friction between the wheels and the track.

• The molecular theory of molecules states that the velocity of molecules correlates to the temperature of the system. How are the actions of a group of people affected by the temperature of a room? How are those actions similar to and different from atoms at the same temperature?

• Write a sentence that explains the system discussed.

• Draw a graphic organizer that shows the relationship of the parts to the whole.

• Half-time is the time it takes for half of the radioactive particles in a radioactive nucleus to decay.

• All isotopes have the same atomic number but different atomic masses.

• Some isotopes are radioactive due to the different number of neutrons.

• See the table on sources of energy.

• Ice, water, and steam all have the same chemical composition (H2O) but each are in a different phase.

• From the blue book, complete the following questions:

• p.53 (26,27,30)

• p.61 (1-4)

• p.62-63 (6-8)

• p.64 (11-14)

• p.68 (21-25)