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Broad Fish Tapeworm. By: Lauren Slater. Index. Definition of the tapeworm Classification Anatomy and Physiology Reproduction Life Cycle Hosts Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment & Control Statistics Other Pictures Work Cited.

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Broad Fish Tapeworm

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Broad Fish

Tapeworm

By:

Lauren Slater


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Index

Definition of the tapeworm

Classification

Anatomy and Physiology

Reproduction

Life Cycle

Hosts

Diagnosis

Symptoms

Treatment & Control

Statistics

Other Pictures

Work Cited


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The broad fish tapeworm, scientific name is Diphyllobothruim Latum which represents one of the biggest tapeworm species. They are called broad fish tapeworms because the reproductive segments are usually broader than they are long. The adult is yellowish-gray in color and can live in humans for 20 years. It often grows to lengths of 3-7 feet and is capable of reaching 30 feet in length. It is the longest tapeworm in humans with as many as 4,000 segments. Most of the body is filled with male and female reproductive organs allowing it to produce a lot of eggs and it can lay as many as 1,000,000 a day.

URL: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic597.htm


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Classification

Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: PlatyhelminthsClass: CestodaOrder: PseudophyllideaFamily: DiphyllobothriidaeGenus : Diphyllobothrium Species: latumCommon name: Broad Fish Tapeworm.

URL: http://www.soton.ac.uk/~ceb/Students/Diphyllobothrium.htm


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Anatomy & Physiology

  • These worms are bilaterally symmetrical flatworms that lack an intestinal tract and are able to absorb nutrients through the outer covering or coat of skin of an animal or the membrane enclosing an organ.

  • The adult consists of a head called the scolex which has dorsal and ventral suckers and attaches to the mucosa of the intestine and the head is the smallest part of the worm which is less than 1mm. They also have a neck and a germinal region that consists of a string of separate individual segments that have a full set of progressively maturing reproductive organs and is where both male and female gonads are found. It has a uterus which is in the center of the worm and a operculum.

Scolex and Uterus

URL: http://www.parasitecleanse.com/fishtapeworms.htm


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Anatomy & Physiology

  • These tapeworms grow when segments bud from the scolex. The segments enlarge by developing large numbers of eggs that are later shed in the stool.

  • They are hermaphroditic and capable of self-fertilization, but their eggs must be passed into an aquatic environment to complete their development and become infective.

  • They do not have a digestive tract at any stage of their development, so they absorb nutrients. Usually vitamin B-12 and folic acid through the skin.

  • They give off toxic waste which causes damage to the body. They exchange nutrients and waste through their body covering. The covering is covered by small projections called microtriches, which lie in nearness to the host’s intestinal villi and greatly increase the absorption area of the flatworm.

URL: http://www.parasitecleanse.com/fishtapeworms.htm


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Reproduction

Each segment on the worm contains a complete set of male and female reproductive organs. Some of the reproductive organs

The Female Reproductive System

Ovary

Uterus

Ootype (where egg is formed)

Uterine Pore

Vagina

Vitelline Glands (makes the yolk and shell of the eggs)

Vitelline Duct

Mehlis Gland (unicellular shell gland)

The Male Reproductive System

Testes

Vas Deferens

Cirrus (opening anterior to the vagina in a common genital atrium)

URL: http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~schisto/Tapes/Tapes_Gen/human.tapeworms.html


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Reproduction

  • Fertilization is internal

  • Most of them require cross-fertilization between two worms

  • Some of them can self-fertilize between two segments of the same worm.

  • Eggs develop into embryos with hard outer shells that don’t hatch until they are eaten by a suitable intermediate host.

  • Eggs leave the host’s body through the feces.

  • Worms can release 3,000-1,000,000 eggs/day

URL: http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~schisto/Tapes/Tapes_Gen/human.tapeworms.html


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Life Cycle

  • The eggs develop in water and 2 to 3 weeks to ripen and hatch into free swimming larvae which are eaten by the first intermediate host (copepod).

  • Copepods are eaten by fishes within which further development occurs.

  • A fish eating mammal such as a human, ingests the infected intermediate hosts, and development leads to maturation of the adult worm.

  • Adult worms living in the intestine of the definitive host will be producing eggs in 1 to 2 weeks in which it will be passed from the host’s body during elimination of feces. This is called the diagnostic stage.

URL: http://www.parasitecleanse.com/fishtapeworms.htm


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URL: http://www.parasitecleanse.com/fishtapeworms.htm


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Hosts

Host Species:

Definitive Hosts:

  • Mink, humans, dogs, cats, bears, and other fish eating mammals

    First Intermediate Hosts:

  • Copepod-microcrustacean such as hydra or cyclops

    Second intermediate Hosts:

  • Freshwater fish such as pike, perch, carp, salmon , and others.

URL:http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic597.htm


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Diagnosis

Diagnostic Findings:

  • Infected patients sometimes pass visible segments of worm in stool is the basis of specific diagnosis.

  • CBC may reveal anemia with large red blood cells

Eggs of Diphyllobothrium latum. These eggs are oval or ellipsoidal, with at one end an operculum and the opposite end a small knob. The eggs are passed in the stool. Size range: 58 to 76 µm by 40 to 51 µm. 

URL: http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Diphyllobothriasis.asp?body=Frames/A-F/Diphyllobothriasis/body_Diphyllobothriasis_mic1.htm


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More Diagnostic Findings

Proglottids of Diphyllobothrium latum.  These proglottids tend to be passed in strands of variable length in the stool.  The proglottids tend to be broader than long. 

The proglottid is broader than it is long; size 2 to 4 mm long by 10 to 12 mm wide; uterus coiled in rosette appearance; genital pore at the center of the proglottid.

URL: http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Diphyllobothriasis.asp?body=Frames/A-F/Diphyllobothriasis/body_Diphyllobothriasis_mic1.htm


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Symptoms

  • The majority of infected individuals have no symptoms. Symptoms seen with heavy infections may include:

  • Abdominal discomfort

  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea

  • Loss of appetite and weight loss

  • Abdominal pain due to intestinal blockage by worms

  • Fatigue due to anemia

  • Numbness and tingling in their limbs

  • Confusion or dementia

URL: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic597.htm


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Treatment & Control

  • There are a large number of possible drugs available to treat this disease, the two main ones used are Niclosamide and praziquantel, both of which are highly effective.

  • Vitamin B-12 injections or supplements may be needed for the treatment of megaloblastic anemia.

  • Effective control measures include cooking fish properly or freezing the fish down below -12 C for a minimum of 24 hrs.

  • In addition, properly treated and managed swage is also important.

URL: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic597.htm


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Statistics

  • Can grow up to 35 feet long and live 10 years in humans.

  • They believe the ancestors of human became hosts to tapeworms about 2 million years ago in the savannas of Africa by preying on antelope and other wild creatures.

  • The largest broad fish tapeworm recorded inside of a human was 60ft long.

URL:http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic597.htm


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The ribbon-like fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum is displayed in a glass petri dish.

URL: http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec17/ch196/ch196k.html


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The tapeworm in the intestine.

URL: http://www.gastrolab.net/ya134n.jpg & http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/paralab/labs/6_39.gif


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Barr, Iain. Diphyllobothriasis Latum. n.pag. On-line. Internet. 1 Dec. 2004. Available WWW: http://www.soton.ac.uk/~ceb/Students/Diphyllobothrium.htm

DPDx. Diagnostic Findings Diphyllobothriasis. n.pag. On-line. Internet. 1 Dec. 2004. Available WWW: http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/HTML/Diphyllobothriasis.asp?body=Frames/A-F/Diphyllobothriasis/body_Diphyllobothriasis_mic1.htm

eMedicine. Diphyllobothriasis. 12 July 2002: n.pag. On-line. Internet. 1 Dec. 2004. Available WWW: http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic597.htm

MERCK. Tapeworm Infection. n.pag. On-line. Internet. 1 Dec. 2004. Available WWW: http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec17/ch196/ch196k.html

Stewart, Terry. Cestodes and Cestode Infections of Man. 5 Oct. 1998: n.pag. On-line. Internet. 1 Dec. 2004 Available WWW: http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~schisto/Tapes/Tapes_Gen/human.tapeworms.html

The Life Tree. Fish Tapeworms. n.pag. On-line. Internet. 1 Dec. 2004. Available WWW: http://www.parasitecleanse.com/fishtapeworms.htm

Work Cited


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