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Cosmic Scales. The Universe in a Year By Vincent Sapone. Overview. What would a yearly Calendar look like if the entire history of the Universe was compressed into one year? . Parameters. Actual Age of the Universe: 13.7 Billion Years Old. 1 Second on our Calendar equals 434.4 years.

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Cosmic Scales

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Cosmic Scales

The Universe in a Year

By Vincent Sapone

by Vincent Sapone

Overview

• What would a yearly Calendar look like if the entire history of the Universe was compressed into one year?

by Vincent Sapone

Parameters

Actual Age of the Universe:13.7 Billion Years Old

1 Second on our Calendar equals 434.4 years

by Vincent Sapone

• 1 Day = 37,534,246.58 years

Therefore, each of our Birthdays corresponds to a cosmic history of 37.5 million years.

Did anything special happen on your birthday? Considering the large time span something must have happened, shouldn’t it?

by Vincent Sapone

Final Questions

• Before proceeding, think about this question to yourself: On what Calendar day will human history begin?

• The next page has a hint 

by Vincent Sapone

Human Life Range

• Taking 75 years as the average life expectancy yields a time of 0.17 seconds for the life of an average human being.

by Vincent Sapone

Calendar Days

• January through June

by Vincent Sapone

Difficulties

• During this early period it is difficult to nail down precise dates.

• In fact, usually a range is given. For instance, the study (WMAP) which suggests the universe is 13.7 billion years old that we are using has a plus/minus caveat of 200 million years (13.7 +/- 0.2 bya)

• General estimates will be provided.

by Vincent Sapone

In The Beginning

The Big Bang : January 1st at 12:00 AM

On this day the universe as we know it came to be; violently expanding outward in all directions.

by Vincent Sapone

Origin of Milky Way (13.6 +/- .8 bya*)

• January 3rd at about 4:00 PM marks the origin of our home galaxy.

*Numbers are taken from the 2004 study which used the UV-Visual Echelle

Spectrograph of the VLT to study Beryllium content in two stars of a globular

cluster.

by Vincent Sapone

Eons of time.

• Lots of stuff happens within the coming months but the next really significant event we can speak of is our solar system’s formation.

by Vincent Sapone

Solar Nebula

• Modern theory tells us the sun and other objects within our solar system formed from a solar nebula about 4.6 billion years ago

by Vincent Sapone

Earth’s Origin

• Earth formed 9.1 billion yeas into our universe’s history. Roughly 242.5 days into our year.

by Vincent Sapone

Earth

• August 31th at about 12:00 PM marks the origin of our solar system and Earth.

by Vincent Sapone

The Cosmos

• The entire Cosmos is Here. All the galaxies, stars, planets and large scale matter//mass structures of the universe are in existence.

by Vincent Sapone

Almost Home

• Two Thirds of the History of the Universe has unfolded and all the life we know of today has not appeared in our solar system yet.

by Vincent Sapone

Formation of Life

• Life is most commonly thought to have formed on Earth some time about 3.8 billion years ago. That is 9.9 billion years into the universe’s history.

by Vincent Sapone

Formation of Life

September 21th at just after 6 PM marks the formation of life on Earth.

by Vincent Sapone

Goodbye Dinosaurs

• The Dinosaurs went extinct about 65 million years ago. That is about 13,635,000,000 years into the universe’s existence.

by Vincent Sapone

Dino-bite the dust..

• They went extinct on Dec 30th sometime around 6 am.

by Vincent Sapone

Human Civilization

• Humans can go back millions of years depending on how you define us.

by Vincent Sapone

Primates and Humans

• Anatomically modern humans can be very roughly dated to the last 100,000 years.

by Vincent Sapone

Percentage

• Compared to the total history of the universe, the entire existence of man is only 100,000 out of 13,700,000,000 years.

by Vincent Sapone

Of Men and Mice

• That means the history of the universe is 137,000 times longer than the existence of all modern human civilization.

by Vincent Sapone

100,000 Years Ago

• That is 13,699,900,000 years into the universe’s existence.

by Vincent Sapone

The Dawn of People

• Humans arrived on December 31th at 11.56 pm.

by Vincent Sapone

Perspective

• Only 4 minutes are left of the entire history of the universe and modern humans have just arrived.

by Vincent Sapone

Two Other Key Facts

• For Perspective on “Important” Events in the History of the world look at the following two time periods:

by Vincent Sapone

The United States of America

• America has existed as its own nation for just over 230 years.

by Vincent Sapone

Percentage Wise

• The history of the universe is almost 60,000,000 times longer than the history of the United States.

by Vincent Sapone

World History

• On Cosmic Scales, our lives and the entire history of human civilization are nothing more than a fleeting dust particle in the sands of time.

by Vincent Sapone

Humility

• The sheer size, scope and age of the universe in which we live are very humbling.

by Vincent Sapone

Guide to Key Dates

• Jan. 1st 12.00 AM : Big Bang

• Jan. 3rd 4.00 PM: Galaxy Forms

• Aug. 31st 12.00 PM: Solar System

• Sep. 21st 6.00 PM: First Life

• Dec. 30th 6.00 AM: Dinosaurs

• Dec. 31th 11:56 PM: Humans

by Vincent Sapone