back and other musculoskeletal injuries
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BACK AND OTHER MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES

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BACK AND OTHER MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES. CARE AND PREVENTION. STATISTICS. Almost 100% will suffer some musculoskeletal problem in their lifetime 80% of work-age persons have already experienced some back pain or discomfort 100 million work days lost annually

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statistics
STATISTICS
  • Almost 100% will suffer some musculoskeletal problem in their lifetime
  • 80% of work-age persons have already experienced some back pain or discomfort
  • 100 million work days lost annually
  • Direct and indirect dollars spent annually is over 25 BILLION dollars
  • Back injuries second only to respiratory infections in lost work time and dollars
the skeleton s basic functions
THE SKELETON’SBASIC FUNCTIONS
  • Provides body support
  • Maintain upright position
  • Protect spinal cord and other soft tissue
  • Allows flexibility to bend and rotate
  • Cushion against shock
causes of musculoskeletal injury causes
CAUSES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURY CAUSES
  • Probably no single cause
  • Result of years of traumas and stresses
  • Eventual “twinge” or “pop” is the straw that broke the camel’s back
  • Collective causes are poor posture, faulty body mechanics, loss of body strength and flexibility, and general fitness decay
anatomy of the vertebral column
ANATOMY OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
  • Vertebra - Bones
  • Process - Bone extension from vertebra
  • Joint - Space between vertebra
  • Disc - Cartilage rings or pads
  • Ligament - Connective tissue
  • Muscle - Create movement
  • Tendon - Tie muscles to bones
  • Nerve - Control muscle activity
physiology of the vertebral column
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
  • Provides body support and structure
  • Absorbs shock
  • Enervation path to most all body parts
  • No blood flow or enervation to discs
  • Discs cannot be repaired or replaced by body
  • Pain in extremities may be caused by pinched nerve in vertebral column
vertebral column regions
Vertebral Column Regions

Cervical (7)

Thoracic (12)

Lumbar (5)

Sacral (5)

standing posture
Keep your spinal column aligned in its natural curves

To reduce stress on lower back rest one foot at a time

Keep work area at elbow level

STANDING POSTURE
stretch often shift positions
Change (shift) your posture often

Stretch frequently

Keep your body flexible (not rigid or fixed)

Don’t force your body to conform to its workspace

STRETCH OFTEN & SHIFT POSITIONS
preparing to lift or move
Stretch your muscles and warm up before lifting?

Wear slip resistant shoes?

Clear a pathway before you move the item?

Visualize the move before you start.

PREPARING TO LIFT OR MOVE
lift with common sense
Assess the situation

Is the load big, bulky, heavy?

Do you need help?

Remember, no single technique will work in all circumstances

LIFT WITH COMMON SENSE!
need help or assistance
If needed, get help or assistance before lifting

Use proper equipment

- Hand trucks

- Forklifts

- Dollies or carts

Re-adjust the load or your position before you lift

Need Help Or Assistance?
the safe lifting zone
The safe lifting zone is between the knees and shoulders

Below knee level? Bend with your knees and lift with your legs

Above your shoulders? Use a stool or ladder

The Safe Lifting Zone
when you lift
Plant your feet firmly - get a stable base

Bend the knees- not the waist

Tighten abdominal muscles to support your spine

Get a good grip- use both hands

Place hands on opposite corners for balance

When You Lift ---
when you lift16
Keep the load close to your body

Use your leg muscles as you lift

Keep your back upright, in its natural posture

Lift steadily and smoothly without jerking

When You Lift ---
when you lift do not
Lift while reaching or stretching

Lift from an uncomfortable posture

Fight to recover a dropped object

Lift and twist at the same time

When You LiftDo Not!
lifting and carrying problems
Lifting And Carrying Problems
  • Loss of Body Balance
  • Deviating from the back’s normal curvature
  • Sideward lifting
  • Extended arms lifting
  • Improper carrying
  • Twisting and repetitive motion
common mistakes
Common Mistakes
  • Lifting with back bent forward and legs straight
  • Using fast jerky motions
  • Lifting and twisting at the same time
  • Carrying the load away from the body
  • Poor planning and/or communication
  • Insufficient strength
rules for lifting
Rules For Lifting
  • Plan lifts; Remove obstacles
  • Test the load weight
  • Get assistance when necessary
  • Maintain balanced body position
  • Whenever possible use large muscles
  • Firm stomach muscles when lifting
  • Proper hand placement for balance
rules for lifting21
Rules For Lifting
  • Keep load as close to the body as possible
  • Pivot feet instead of twisting back
  • Minimize reaching and bending
  • Smooth and continuous motions
  • Maintain wide stable base throughout lift
examples of injuries and maladies
Examples Of Injuries And Maladies
  • Herniated or ruptured disc. No such thing as a “slipped disc”
  • Osteoarthritis - a wearing away of discs
  • Aging and weight lifting causes a flattening of discs
  • Accidental injury (breaks, sprains, strains, etc.)
  • Birth defects
exercise program
Design and carry out exercise protocol to fit body needs

Utilize stretch routine frequently to keep body flexible

Helps prevent injury

Do not overdo-- follow doctor’s instruction carefully

Exercise Program
muscle guarding
Muscle Guarding

Pain

Muscle

Inflammation

Muscle

Guarding

Muscle

Spasm

Restricted

Movement

Metabolite

Retention

Circulatory

Reduction

remember
Remember!
  • Plan your tasks carefully to avoid back pain or stress
  • Managing your back is your responsibility
  • Your work day is one third of your total day
  • Relieving musculoskeletal stress away from work is just as important
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