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Ch 4 – A Tour of the Cell. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in the body. Prokaryote v. Eukaryote Are smaller than eukaryotic cells Lack internal structures surrounded by membranes Lack a nucleus There are three principal parts: plasma membrane (plasmalemma)

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ch 4 a tour of the cell
Ch 4 – A Tour of the Cell
  • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in the body.
    • Prokaryote v. Eukaryote
      • Are smaller than eukaryotic cells
      • Lack internal structures surrounded by membranes
      • Lack a nucleus
  • There are three principal parts:
    • plasma membrane (plasmalemma)
    • cytoplasm and organelles
    • nucleus..
slide2

Prokaryotic

flagella

Nucleoid region (DNA)

Ribosomes

Plasma

membrane

Cell wall

Capsule

Pili

slide3

Centriole

Ribosomes

Not in most

plant cells

Lysosome

Flagellum

Cytoskeleton

Plasma

membrane

Nucleus

Mitochondrion

Rough

endoplasmic

reticulum (ER)

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum (ER)

Golgi

apparatus

slide4

Not in animal cells

Cytoskeleton

Mitochondrion

Central

vacuole

Nucleus

Cell wall

Rough endoplamsicreticulum (ER)

Chloroplast

Ribosomes

Plasma

membrane

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum (ER)

Plasmodesmata

Golgi apparatus

slide5

Hydrophilic

region of

protein

Phospholipid

bilayer

Hydrophobic

region of protein

(b) Fluid mosaic model of membrane

  • The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
slide6
The functions of plasma membrane include:
    • selectively permeable and surrounds the cellular contents.
    • regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell.
    • participates in intercellular communications..
transport of materials across the plasma membrane
Transport of materials across the plasma membrane
  • In general:
    • large macromolecules cannot cross the membrane
    • charged molecules cannot cross the membrane
    • small, non-charged molecules can cross
    • water can cross..
slide8
The cytoplasm (cytosol) is the gelatinous material inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus.
  • The cytoplasm contains organelles which are sub-cellular structures that perform discrete functions. True organelles are bounded by a phospholipid membrane..
slide9
The nucleus is a double-membrane organelle containing the nucleic acids (DNA) and at least one nucleolus (contains ribosomal RNA).
  • This organelle stores the genetic infor-mation and contains the blueprints for almost all protein syntheses.
    • DNA RNA protein..
slide10

Ribosomes

Chromatic

Nucleolus

Pore

Nuclear

envelope

organelles of a typical cell
Organelles of a Typical Cell

Ribosome

Production of proteins – located attached to ER or free-floating

Endoplasmic

Reticulum (ER)

*Rough

*Smooth

Passageway for materials

Produces proteins & processes molecules for secretion

Produces lipids & detoxifies drugs & stores Ca++

Golgi Apparatus

Packages material for export & processes macromolecules

Vacuole & vesicle

Storage..

slide12

Lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes. Each contains one specific enzyme.

Chloroplasts

Carries out photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

Aerobic cellular respiration:

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O +ATP

Mitochondria

Cilia, flagella, microvilli

Surface projections – increase surface area & produce movement..

slide13

Walls of two adjacent

plant cells

Vacuole

Plasmodesmata

(channels between cells)

CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS

  • Plant cells are encased by cell walls
  • These provide support for the plant cells
slide14

Animal cells lack cell walls

  • They secrete a sticky covering called the extracellular matrix
  • This layer helps hold cells together
  • Animal cells connect by various types of junctions
  • Tight junctions
  • Adhering junctions
  • Communicating junctions
slide15

Extracellular matrix

(a) Tight junctions

(b) Anchoring

junctions

(c) Communicating

junctions

Plasma membranes

of adjacent cells

Extracellular matrix

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