Vietnam
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Vietnam Part 1. The War in Southeast Asia General Causes. A regional power vacuum existed in Southeast after WW II South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia were politically unstable North Vietnam wanted to reunite North and South Vietnam under communist rule

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Vietnam Part 1

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Vietnam part 1

Vietnam

Part 1


Vietnam part 1

The War in Southeast Asia General Causes

  • A regional power vacuum existed in Southeast after WW II

  • South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia were politically unstable

  • North Vietnam wanted to reunite North and South Vietnam under communist rule

  • America wanted to prevent the spread of communism, by force if necessary


Vietnam part 1

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Aug ‘64

  • Passed by Congress 5 Aug 1964

    • Radically altered the War in Southeast Asia

    • Empowered President Johnson to:

    • “To take all necessary steps to repel armed attack against US forces”

    • “To take all necessary steps, including force, to assist S Vietnam and any member of SEATO”

  • Committed US to fight for S Vietnam

Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on Aug. 27, 1908. He was selected by John F. Kennedy as the Vice Presidential running mate, together they won the 1960 Presidential election. He became the 36th president of the United States on the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963. A staunch believer in the use of military force to help achieve the country's foreign policy objectives. Escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War.


Vietnam part 1

US Build-up -- 1965 to 1968

  • March 1965 -- US Marines and Army arrive

    • “Rolling Thunder”bombing campaign begun

  • By 1969, US troop strength reached 543,000 (500,000 supported the war from other Asian countries and Pacific bases)

  • US became heavily involved in fighting a

    guerrilla war-- they were not prepared

  • 30 Jan ‘68 -- North launched Tet Offensive


Vietnam part 1

Events Surrounding the Paris Peace Talks

  • Talks began in 68 but achieved nothing

    • North Vietnam knew time was on their side

  • US units continued to withdraw

    • By 1972, 200,000 US troops had left Vietnam

  • Mar 72-- North launched its “Easter Offensive” against South Vietnam

    • Attack repelled by US air power (Linebacker I)


Vietnam part 1

Events Surrounding the Paris Peace Talks (Cont)

  • Talks resumed following the Easter Offensive

    -- again little movement occurred

  • Late 1972, Nixon ordered massive bombing of North Vietnam (Linebacker II)

  • Linebacker II forced the North to negotiate in earnest

  • Peace Accords signed 27 Jan 1973

    • Called for US to withdraw all units by Mar 73


Vietnam part 1

The Fall of South Vietnam

  • Between 1973 and 1975, North continued to build strength in violation of Peace Accords

  • Nixon preoccupied with the Watergate scandal

  • US Congress tired of Vietnam and refused to help

  • Feb 75, North launched the Ho Chi Minh campaign against the South

    • South easily defeated without US air support

  • Laos and Cambodia fell quickly thereafter


Video vietnam

VIDEOVietnam


Vietnam part 1

Vietnam Video Discussion


Question 1

Question 1

What was the significance of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident in August 1964?


Q1 answer

Q1 - Answer

  • Led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution whereby Congress gave the President authority to commit troops to defend South Vietnam and SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization )countries.

  • Committed the US to War in Southeast Asia.


Question 2

Question 2

What was the purpose of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization?


Q2 answer

Q2 - Answer

  • To prevent the fall of Southeast Asian countries to communism.

    • “Domino Theory” if one country fell, they would all.


Question 3

Question 3

What was the “graduated response” strategy adopted by the US ’65 and ’68?


Q3 answer

Q3 - Answer

A limited warfighting strategy that called for slow and gradual increase in intensity

Based on the premise that the fear of future bombing would bring the North to its senses and stop the fighting -- strategy actually had the opposite effect

Based on the fear that to much would draw the Chinese and the Soviets into the conflict


Next week

Next Week

Uses of Air Power during Vietnam


Vietnam part 1

Questions?


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