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Structured presentation: with POWERPOINT. lessness. ( “FÅP”: First-year Project Course, ITU, Denmark ). Claus Brabrand [ [email protected] ]. Outline. Introduction & History Content & Structure Semantics & Consistency Form (tips’n’tricks) Images Text F onts

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Structured presentation with powerpoint

Structured presentation:with POWERPOINT

lessness

( “FÅP”: First-year Project Course, ITU, Denmark)

Claus Brabrand

[ [email protected] ]


Outline

Outline

Introduction & History

Content & Structure

Semantics & Consistency

Form (tips’n’tricks)

  • Images

  • Text

  • Fonts

  • Colors

  • Themes

  • Animations

    Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

1

[~Inventio/Dispositio]

2

[~Elucutio]

3

[~Elucutio]

4

abc

Fnt

<T>

[~Memoria/Actio]

5


History

History

  • Purchased by Microsoft for $14,000,000 USD

    • (July 31, 1987)

PowerPoint was invented by Robert Gaskins in early 1987under the name “Presenter” for company Forethought, Inc.

Robert Gaskins


Version history archeology

Version History (archeology)

  • PowerPoint 1.0

    • Black’n’White only! (for ”Overhead projector”)

      • (Mac: Apr. ’87)

  • PowerPoint 2.0

    • Now also in color (for work with ”color 35mm slides”)

      • (Mac: May ’88; Win: May ’90)

  • PowerPoint 3.0

    • Added video-out (for use with ”video projectors”)

      • (Win: May ’92; Mac: Sep. ’92)


  • Ubiquitous

    Ubiquitous

    • PowerPoint is everywhere

      • Guestimate:

        • ( US population)

        • After today’s lecture… :-)

    300,000,000 users

    34


    Popular related tools

    (Popular) Related Tools

    • OpenOffice.org (aka. ”OO.o”)

      • Free Software (LGPL) based on ”StarOffice” by Sun

  • Beamer (for use with LaTeX)

    • i.e. good for mathematics:


  • Outline1

    Outline

    Introduction & History

    Content & Structure

    Semantics & Consistency

    Form (tips’n’tricks)

    • Images

    • Text

    • Fonts

    • Colors

    • Themes

    • Animations

      Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

    1

    [~Inventio/Dispositio]

    2

    [~Elucutio]

    3

    [~Elucutio]

    4

    abc

    Fnt

    <T>

    [~Memoria/Actio]

    5


    Content kind of talk

    MESSAGE

    Content ~ Kind of Talk

    • Which kind of talk?:

      • (different ”conventions and appropriateness’es”)

      • Research talk”conservative”

      • Lecture

      • Debriefing

      • Project presentation

      • Advertizing talk (aka. ’sales pitch’)”fancy”

    Warning: PowerPoint often

    tends towards ”sales pitch”!

    (may distract from message)


    Note on fancy effects

    MESSAGE

    Note on ”Fancy Effects”

    ”The fancy effects offered by today’s presentation software should be used only when they contribute more to the message than they distract from it.”

    -- Robert Gaskins”Powerpoint at 20: Back to Basics”Communications of the ACM, 50(12), 2007


    Know your audience

    (Know your) Audience

    • Prerequisites:

      • Educational level

      • Language & tone (~ type of audience)

      • Technical skills (terminology, abbreviations, …)

  • Essentially: ”know what your audience knows”

    • i.e., ”empathy”

  • Mediators of Change (if applicable):

    • Who’s minds are you trying to change?

    • …and will they ”take” your message?


  • Focal point of presentation

    Focal Point of Presentation

    • Be aware:

      • PowerPoint tends to ”steal the focus”:

      • May be perfectly okay (in some situations)

        • Just but be aware of it!

    Presenter-oriented

    (~ teacher-centric)

    Audience-oriented

    (~ student-centric)

    vs.

    Monologue

    (one-way communication)

    Interaction

    (exchange of ideas)

    Warning: PowerPoint often

    tends towards this one…!


    Audience concentration

    Audience Concentration

    • Experiment:

      • Fitted students with pulse readers (during lecture):

    pulse readings:

    Warning: No long ”talks”

    without breaks or variation!


    On simplicity

    On Simplicity

    Advantage: PowerPoint promotes simplicity!

    (due to space constraints)

    ”Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem”

    "All other things being equal, the simplest solution is the best”

    -- ”Occam’s Razor”, 14th century

    (Paraphrased from Latin)

    ”La semplicità è l'ultima delle sofisticazioni”

    "Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”

    -- Leonardo da Vinci,

    (Translated from Italian)

    "La perfection est atteinte non quand il ne reste rien à ajouter, mais quand il ne reste rien à enlever"

    "Perfection is achieved: not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing more to remove”

    -- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

    (Translated from French)


    But not too simplistic

            

     

     

     

            

    Correlation

    is not

    Causation

    …but NOT TOO simplistic!

    ”Everything should be made as simple as possible, but notsimpler than that”

    -- Albert Einstein

    “We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both trueand sufficient to explain their appearances”

    -- Sir. Isaac Newton

    Warning: PowerPoint often tends towards (over-)simplification!

    ”Empirically observed covariation is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for causality.”

    vs.

    Example from:

    [Tufte, 2003 ]

    (Possibly shortest ’true statement’ of phenomenon.)

    (Grosly over-simplistic!)


    Structuring your talk

    Structuring your Talk

    • Recall the 5 canons (from classical rhetorics):

      • Inventio

      • Disposito

      • Elucutio

      • Memoria

      • Actio

    Advantage: PostItsTM”promote” simplicity!

    (due to space constraints)

    …is how this presentation got organized


    1 point

    1 Point:

    One point per slide


    Make structure explicit

    Make Structure Explicit

    • Use outline:(aka. roadmap)

    • Usually (recommend following structure):

      • Introduction”say what you are gonna say”,

      • Body (part 1, 2, …, n)”say it”,

      • Conclusion”then, say what you’ve said”.

    a

    ”progress indicator”

    may help even further

    Advantage: Audience can follow the explicit structure

    (where are we, what next, ..)


    Usually don t use chronological structure

    Chronological:

    First, we did …;

    Then, we tried …;

    Hereafter, we …;

    Final Solution

    Final Solution

    Initial problem

    Initial problem

    (Usually) Don’t useChronological Structure

    Post-Processed:

    • The Problem is …;

    • The Solution is …;

    • ProblemSolution …;

    Advantage: Easier to

    present and follow

    (demonstrates reflection)

    Warning: Usuallya bad idea for projects

    (lots of ”irrelevance”)


    Other ways of structuring

    Inductive Structure:

    Other ways of Structuring

    Deductive Structure:

    Introduction

    Introduction

    “Build-up”

    Solution

    Solution

    “Break-down”


    Outline2

    Outline

    Introduction & History

    Content & Structure

    Semantics & Consistency

    Form (tips’n’tricks)

    • Images

    • Text

    • Fonts

    • Colors

    • Themes

    • Animations

      Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

    1

    [~Inventio/Dispositio]

    2

    [~Elucutio]

    3

    [~Elucutio]

    4

    abc

    Fnt

    <T>

    [~Memoria/Actio]

    5


    Form vs content

    CONTENT

    CONTENT

    “Decod

    Content

    + FORM

    e”

    e”

    “Encod

    Form vs. Content

    • Form and Content are not independent:

    usually

    Form

    Content

    but also!

    ”A good ’encoded’form guide ’decoding’ of the content”:


    Differential importance

    Differential Importance

    • Use [de-]emphasis to ”encode” importance:

      • Bold, Italics, or emphasis color ”for emphasis”

        • e.g., This is really important

    • Gray or Parentheses ”for deemphasize”

      • e.g., (this is not as important)

  • Standard Color (e.g, black)for ”the rest”

    • e.g., this is of standard importance

  • Advantage: Helps the

    reader tremendously!

    (but use consistently)


    Semantic coloring

    Semantic Coloring

    • Use colors to ”encode” content information:

      • Bluefor some concept

      • Greenfor some other concept

      • Purplefor some third concept

  • You can do this…:

    • Globallyfor entire presentation

    • Locallyfor one slide/section (caution of ”mix-ups”)

  • (e.g., server)

    (e.g., client)

    (e.g., application)

    classApplication {

    Client user;

    Server db;

    Application(Client c, Server s) {

    this.user = s;

    this.db = c;

    db.addClient(user);

    register(db, user);

    ...

    Warning: Your ”color scheme”

    will affect overall aesthetics and ”look-and-feel” (caution)


    Consistency

    Consistency

    • Be meticulously consistent:

    • Pick a(ny) convention (and stick with it)!

    We employ two data-flow analyses

    to construct a graph […]

    We instrument the compiler with an interprocedural data flow analysis

    that extracts […]

    In Sections 4 and 5, the two parts

    of the data-flow-analysis are […]


    Outline3

    Outline

    Introduction & History

    Content & Structure

    Semantics & Consistency

    Form (tips’n’tricks)

    • Images

    • Text

    • Fonts

    • Colors

    • Themes

    • Animations

      Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

    1

    [~Inventio/Dispositio]

    2

    [~Elucutio]

    3

    [~Elucutio]

    4

    abc

    Fnt

    <T>

    [~Memoria/Actio]

    5


    Images

    Images

    • Use relevant images whenever possible:

      • Improves appearance (if used appropriately)

      • Makes a presentation ”less boring”

      • Helps association (if used appropriately)

  • May be used as (psychological-)anchors

    • i.e., ”recall” of content/thoughts/discussions/emotions/...

  • content

    thoughts

    ”Red/black-tree”

    e.g.,

    association

    discussions

    emotions

    (Many people ”store”

    lots of things

    effectively /w images)


    Tips n tricks

    PrtScr

    Ctrl

    Ctrl

    V

    C

    Ctrl

    V

    vs.

    Tips’n’Tricks

    • Locating/creating images:

      • Inspiration: [ images.google.com ]

      • Use digital camera:

  • Incorporating Images:

  • Set transparent color (in ”Picture Tool Bar”)

  • e.g.,

    [PrtScr] ; Paint ; <paste> ; [select area] ; <copy> ; PPT ; <paste>

    Unfortunately

    only one color


    Tips n tricks cont d

    Tips’n’Tricks (cont’d)

    • Align Images !!!

      • (makes slides look more solid & stable)

  • Constant space invariants

    • (…same thing)

  • Moving images precisely

    • [Alt] + mouse

    • [Ctrl] + keys

    • PPT ”window zoom”

      (for further increased precision)

  • DEMO ”SELECT” + ”DISTRIBUTE H/V”


    Tips n tricks cont d 2

    Tips’n’Tricks (cont’d2)

    • Set ”same height”

      • (for horizontally aligned images)

  • Set ”same width”

    • (for vertically aligned images)

  • Compress images

    • (to save space)


  • Tips n tricks cont d 21

    Tips’n’Tricks (cont’d2 )

    2

    • Use arrows to direct attention:

      • (or crossreference)

  • Use highlighting to emphasis relevance:

  • class Application {

    Client user;

    Server db;

    Application(Client c, Server s) {

    ...

    db.addClient(user);

    register(db, user);


    Structured presentation with powerpoint

    Modality redouplication:

    vs.

    not see

    not hear

    TEXT

    ”Less is more”

    Text

    abc

    • Avoid / limit ”text-only-slides”:

      • Uninspirational

        (…and boooooring!)

  • Avoid ”full sentences”:

    • many will read 100%

    • i.e., not concentrate on you

  • Avoid ”orphans”:

    • Lone word on a newline

  • In fact (generally):


    Bullets

    Bullets!

    • Use with great caution!!!

    ”Bullets don’t kill people,

    people kill people”

    -- NRA (National Rifle Association, USA)

    Warning: Sequencing is

    uni-dimenstional!

    Warning: Hierarchical info

    structures have to be”linearized” (= flattened)

    A list can either (be ordered)…:

    • chronologically(e.g., earlylate);

    • alphabetically (e.g. ’A’’Z’);

    • logically (e.g. firstlast); xor

    • priority-wise (e.g., highlow)

    Warning: we loose

    structural information!

    Warning: we loose

    inter-dependencies!

    i.e. one order only (at same time)!


    F o n t s

    FOnts

    • Two (very different!)font design goals:

    “No area is so small that you cannot spend your whole life researching it.”

    -- M. Schwartzbach

    (oral communication)

    Designed to be read on paper:

    Designed to be read on screen:

    vs.

    • e.g.,:

    • Tahoma(Carter, 1994)

    • Verdana(Carter, 1996)

    • Trebuchet(Connare, 1996)

    • e.g.,:

    • Times Roman(Morison et al., 1931)

    • Helvetica(Miedinger, 1957)

    • Arial (Nicholas & Saunders, 1982)


    Sans ou avec serifs

    Sans ou Avec Serifs?

    • ”Serif” Fonts:

      • Usually best on paper

  • ”Sans Serif” Fonts:

    • Usually best on screen

  • Online font readability test:

  • population avg.:

    my scores:

    [ http://edtechfm.sdsu.edu/bhoffman/type/font/intro.htm ]


    Font usage

    Font Usage

    • Size:

      • Always:

        • (for quite obvious reasons:-)

  • Quantity:

    • Maximum:

      • Use monospace fonts (e.g., ”Courier New”)for code / programming fragments

  • Otherwise:

    Use bold or ”wide fonts”

    (e.g., ”Arial Black”)

    ”font size ≥ 20”

    ”2-3 fonts/presentation”

    Application(Client c, Server s) {

    this.db = s;

    this.user = c;

    super();

    }


    C o l o r s cont d

     R2 +G2 + B2

    Colors (cont’d)

    • Lots of ”bad combinations”:

      • Note: often poorly reproduced on projectors

  • Caution with |RGB|-difference (contrast):

    • In general, Maximize this (approximation):

    • for any adjacent colors (R1, G1, B1) and (R2, G2, B2)

    • where (R = |R1-R2|, G = |G1-G2|, B = |B1-B2|)

  • ”Red on Orange”

    ”Blue on Green”

    ”Black on Blue”

    ”Yellow on White”


    C o l o r s

    Colors

    • Caution with colorblindness!

      • Red-Green colourblindness:7–10% of (male) population

        (i.e., statistically 2-3 of the ” s” among you in class)

    ”Ishihara”

    (color test plate):

    Should say ”74”

    (”21” or nothing,

    if colourblind)

    Illustration by:

    E. W. Scripture, 1895

    “Thinking, Feeling, Doing”


    Themes

    THEMES

    <T>

    • Themes are convenient

    • BUT: be careful

      • Some are very very very frequently used!!!


    Animations

    Animations

    • Animations can make presentation more live

    • BUT: be careful

      • Many different

      • Inconsistent use

      • Overly fancy

    Chaotic / Amateur’ish


    Outline4

    Outline

    Introduction & History

    Content & Structure

    Semantics & Consistency

    Form (tips’n’tricks)

    • Images

    • Text

    • Fonts

    • Colors

    • Themes

    • Animations

      Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

    1

    [~Inventio/Dispositio]

    2

    [~Elucutio]

    3

    [~Elucutio]

    4

    abc

    Fnt

    <T>

    [~Memoria/Actio]

    5


    Presentation recap

    Rehearsal:

    Test equipment beforehand

    Get to know room

    Avoid CO2drinks before talk

    (Auken)

    Rehearse slide transitions

    Presentation flow

    Plan (dynamic) skip points

    Get to know personal pace

    #slides/minute

    Incremental uncovering

    (aka. ”striptease” ~ OHP)

    Disable ”menu on right click”

    (in Tools>Options>View)

    Live presentation:

    Use all Mathias’ advice

    …from BRPO

    Speak loud & clearly

    Use ”presenter”

    Use keys ”b” / ”w”

    …for focus on you

    # + <return>

    …to jump to particular slide #

    Cultural differences

    Denmark vs. Germany

    Subject differences

    Science vs. Humanities

    Presentation (recap)


    Small exercises

    Small Exercises

    • Reflect:

      • How did I make the Title slide?

        • (i.e., the first slide of this presentation)?

  • Synthesis:

    • Try out each of the Image Tips’n’Tricks

      • (in succession)

  • Analyze:

    • Does this presentation ”take its own medicine”?

      • Where? Where not (and how could it be improved)?

  • Apply:

    • Improve your slides

      • e.g., your BPRO presentation(s)


  • Exercise for next week

    Exercise (for next week!)

    • Prepare a group presentation on; either:

      • A) ”IT Jobs” – different perspectives:

        • Skills, competences, & personalities (offered and sought)

        • Team and team-work

        • ”Job Index”-like sites

        • IT job sector vs. other sectors

        • Statistics, analyses, & comparisons

    • B) ”Evolution” – different perspectives:

      • Historical: Darwin, Beagle, Galápagos, Finches, Mendel, ..

      • Biological: genes, selection, mutation, recombination, …

      • Psychological: Evolutionary psyc. [Pinker, Dawkins, ...]

      • Religious: ”Evolution vs. Intelligent Design”

      • Ideological: human self-image, memetics, …


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