Chapter 14
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Chapter 14. The Scientific Revolution was founded on the idea of acquiring knowledge through skepticism, experimentation, and reasoning based on observed facts. Questioning Truth and Authority. The Old View The Earth-Centered Universe The earth rested at the center of an unchanging universe.

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

  • The Scientific Revolution was founded on the idea of acquiring knowledge through skepticism, experimentation, and reasoning based on observed facts.

Questioning truth and authority

Questioning Truth and Authority

  • The Old View

    • The Earth-Centered Universe

      • The earth rested at the center of an unchanging universe.

  • Undermining the Old View

    • Hermetic Doctrine

      • All matter contained the divine spirit, which humans ought to seek to understand.

      • It held that the sun was the most important agency for transmission of the divine spirit, and occupied the center of the universe.

Questioning truth and authority1

Questioning Truth and Authority

  • Exploration

    • Geographic exploration during the Renaissance upset traditional assumptions

    • Overseas voyages stimulated demand for new instruments, precise measurements for navigation, and encouraged research, especially in astronomy and mathematics.

  • The Printing Press

    • The printing press enabled even out-of-favor scholars to publish their findings, which spread new ideas and discoveries.

Chapter 141

Chapter 14

  • European scientists uncovered new information about the world around them and different ways of looking at the universe, and embarked on a search for knowledge without limits.

Developing a modern scientific view

Developing a modern Scientific View

  • Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton

    • Nicolaus Copernicus

      • A polish clergyman – he crossed the Alps to study in an Italian university.

      • He sought a simpler mathematical formulation to explain how the universe operated.

      • He believed that at the center is the sun, circled by the earth and other planets.

    • Tycho Brahe

      • He persuaded the king of Denmark to build for him the most advanced astronomy laboratory in Europe.

Developing a modern scientific view1

Developing a modern Scientific View

  • Tycho Brahe (cont.)

    • He recorded thousands of unusually accurate, detailed observations abouth the planets and stars over a period of 20 years all without a telescope.

  • Johannes Kepler

    • Believed in an underlying mathematical harmony of mystical significance to the physical universe.

    • He founded the three laws of planetary motion.

  • Galileo Galilei

    • He formulated the principle of inertia, showing that bodies, once set into motion, will tend to stay in motion.

Developing a modern scientific view2

Developing a modern Scientific View

  • Isaac Newton

    • He developed calculus and investigated the nature of light.

  • Newton’s Principia

    • He formulated and mathematically described three laws of motion: inertia, acceleration, and action/reaction.

    • The law of universal attraction, or gravitation

Developing a modern scientific view3

Developing a modern Scientific View

  • The Revolution Spreads: Medicine, Anatomy, and Chemistry

    • Paracelsus

      • A teacher and wandering practitioner, he treated patients, experimented with chemicals, recorded his observations, and developed new theories.

      • He encouraged research and experimentation to find natural remedies for bodily disorders.

    • Andreas Vesalius

      • Wrote the first comprehensive textbook on the structure of the human body.

      • He dissected cadavers and became the personal physician to Emperor Charles V.

Developing a modern scientific view4

Developing a modern Scientific View

  • William Harvey

    • He dissected hundreds of animals, and discovered that the human heart worked like a pump, with valves that allowed blood to circulate through the body.

  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

    • The chief pioneer in the use of the microscope

  • Robert Boyle

    • He argued that all matter was composed of indestructible atoms that behaved in predictable ways.

  • The Methodology of Science Emerges

  • Developing a modern scientific view5

    Developing a modern Scientific View

    • Francis Bacon

      • He believed that science would benefit commerce and industry and improve the human condition by giving people unprecedented power over their environment.

    • Rene Descartes

      • In 1637, he published his philosophy and scientific methodology in the Discourse on Method.

      • He questioned all forms of authority

      • “I think, therefore I am”

    Chapter 142

    Chapter 14

    • Scientists relied upon interaction with colleagues and the support of patrons to build upon and spread the ideas the ideas of the Scientific Revolution.

    Supporting and spreading science

    Supporting and Spreading Science

    • Courts and Salons

    • The Rise of Royal Societies

    • Religion and the New Science

    • The New Worldview

      • The Copernican-Newtonian Paradigm

        • The earth, along with the planets, moved around the sun in an infinite universe of other similar bodies.

        • The natural order consisted of matter in motion, acting according to mathematically expressible laws.

        • Scientific truths came from observing, measuring, experimenting, and making reasoned conclusions through the use of sophisticated mathematics.

    Chapter 143

    Chapter 14

    • As Europeans applied these scientific ideas about the acquisition of knowledge to other disciplines, a new way of thinking that emphasized reason emerged and characterized the cultural movement known as the Enlightenment.

    Laying the foundations for the enlightenment

    Laying the Foundations for the Enlightenment

    • Science Popularized

      • Teaching Science

        • In 1761, scientific ideas were being taught to children of the middle and upper classes.

      • Glorifying Newton: Reason and Nature

        • Enlightenment thinkers saw this brilliant Englishman as the great synthesizer of the scientific revolution

      • The Psychology of John Locke

        • Applied scientific thinking to human psychology

        • Pictured the human brain at birth as a blank sheet of paper that sensory perception and reason filled as a person aged.

    Laying the foundations for the enlightenment1

    Laying the Foundations for the Enlightenment

    • Skepticism and Religion

      • Pierre Bayle

        • The leading proponent of skepticism in the late seventeenth century

      • David Hume

        • He insisted that nothing could be known for sure.

        • Reality consisted only of human perceptions

    Laying the foundations for the enlightenment2

    Laying the Foundations for the Enlightenment

    • Broadening Criticism of Authority and Tradition

      • Travel Writings of Montesquieu and Voltaire

        • Used comparisons of place and time to criticize authority and tradition during the early decades of the eighteenth century

      • History and Progress

        • The tools of science and reason enabled people to surpass their historical predecessors.

        • History became a story of human progress, and people living in the eighteenth century stood on the brink of unprecedented historical achievements.

    Chapter 144

    Chapter 14

    • Using nature as a guide for thought and society, Enlightenment thinkers came into conflict with established ideas, religions, and institutions, and suggested avenues of reform.

    The enlightenment in full stride

    The Enlightenment in Full Stride

    • The Philosophes

      • Voltaire

        • Imprisoned in the Bastille for writing verses that criticized the crown

      • Emilie du Chatelet

        • Voltaire lived openly with Chatelet and her husband.

        • Chatelet helped Voltaire gain a better understanding of the sciences and their significance.

    • The Encyclopedia

    • Battling the Church

    The enlightenment in full stride1

    The Enlightenment in Full Stride

    • Deism

      • An impersonal, infinite Divine Being created the universe but did not interfere with the world of human affairs

  • Reforming Society

    • Political Thought: Montesquieu and Rousseau

      • Montesquieu argued that political institutions should conform to the climate, customs, beliefs, and economy of a particular country.

      • Rousseau argued that people in the “primitive” state of “noble savagery” were free, equal, and relatively happy.

    • Economic Ideas: The Physiocrats and Adam Smith

      • Economics had its own set of natural laws – supply and demand

  • The enlightenment in full stride2

    The Enlightenment in Full Stride

    • Criminology, Penology, and Slavery

      • Beccaria thought criminal law should strive to deter crime and rehabilitate criminals rather than merely punish wrongdoers

      • Abbe Guillaume Raynal argued practices of European and American colonists were irrational and inhumane

    • Education

      • Many Enlightenment thinkers based their ideas on the psychological ideas of John Locke, which emphasized the power of education to mold the child into the adult.

    • The “Woman Question”

      • Questioned the inequality of men’s and women’s roles

    The enlightenment in full stride3

    The Enlightenment in Full Stride

    • The Culture and Spread of the Enlightenment

      • Salon Meetings

        • Meetings were hosted by wealth Parisian patrons, usually women of the aristocracy or upper-middle class

        • They gathered regularly to read, listen to, and debate the ideas of the Enlightenment

      • Bookstores

        • Bookstores became hotbeds of Enlightenment ideas

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