Unit 3 the conscious self
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UNIT 3 THE CONSCIOUS SELF. AREA OF STUDY 1: MIND, BRAIN & BODY. DESCRIBING CONSCIOUSNESS. CONSCIOUSNESS The awareness of objects and events in the external world and of our own existence and mental experiences at any given moment

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UNIT 3 THE CONSCIOUS SELF

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Unit 3 the conscious self

UNIT 3THE CONSCIOUS SELF

AREA OF STUDY 1: MIND, BRAIN & BODY


Describing consciousness

DESCRIBING CONSCIOUSNESS

CONSCIOUSNESS

The awareness of objects and events in the external world and of our own existence and mental experiences at any given moment

SELECTIVE You choose to attend to certain things and ignore others

CONTINUOUSThere is never a time when consciousness is ‘empty’

CHANGINGNew information is constantly coming into awareness


Classroom activity

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.1 (pg.95)


Describing consciousness states of consciousness

DESCRIBING CONSCIOUSNESSSTATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

OUR STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IS OUR AWARENESS OF OUR INTERNAL STATE & EXTERNAL SURROUNDINGS AT ANY GIVEN TIME

THERE ARE NO DISTINCT BOUNDARIES TO INDICATE WHERE ONE STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS ENDS AND ANOTHER BEGINS

PSYCHOLOGISTS OFTEN DESCRIBE CONSCIOUSNESS AS RANGING ALONG A CONTINUUM (OR SCALE)


Describing consciousness states of consciousness1

DESCRIBING CONSCIOUSNESSSTATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

TWO BROAD CATEGORIES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESS

ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS

LEVEL OF AWARENESS

THE CONTENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS

THE USE OF CONTROLLED OR AUTOMATIC PROCESSES TO PERFORM TASKS

PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCES

COGNITIVE ABILITIES

EMOTIONAL AWARENESS

SELF-CONTROL

THE EXPERIENCE OF TIME


Homework

HOMEWORK

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.2 (pg.98)

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.3 (pg.98)


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESS

REFERS TO THE STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS ASSOCIATED WITH BEING AWAKE AND AWARE OF OUR THOUGHTS, MEMORIES, FEELINGS AND THE SENSATIONS WE FEEL FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD

  • LEVELS OF AWARENESS

    - Role of Attention (Selected & Divided Attention)

  • CONTENT LIMITATIONS

  • CONTROLLED & AUTOMATIC PROCESSES


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness levels of awareness

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESSLEVELS OF AWARENESS

ATTENTION = Concentration of a mental activity that involves focusing on a specific stimulus while ignoring other stimuli

SELECTIVE vs. DIVIDED


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness levels of awareness1

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESSLEVELS OF AWARENESS

SELECTIVE ATTENTION

Choosing and attending to a specific stimulus at the exclusion of others

WHAT MAKES US PAY ATTENTION?

  • Information that is personally important to us

    (eg. the cocktail party phenomenon)

  • Information that is novel to us, new or unusual

    (eg. television advertisers)


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness levels of awareness2

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESSLEVELS OF AWARENESS

DIVIDED ATTENTION

The ability to distribute our attention and undertake two or more activities simultaneously

Our ability to ‘multi-task’ depends on how much conscious effort is required for the various tasks in which we are engaged

NEISSER & BECKLEN (1975) – BOX 2.2


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness content limitations

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESSCONTENT LIMITATIONS

Comparing NWC to an ASC, the content (type of information) held in our consciousness is:

More restricted or limited

Organised

Logical

Compare the content held in our consciousness during NWC as opposed to the content held in our consciousness when we are dreaming (an ASC)


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness controlled automatic processes

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESSCONTROLLED & AUTOMATIC PROCESSES

CONTROLLED PROCESS (SERIAL)

Involves conscious, alert awareness and mental effort in which the individual actively focuses their attention on achieving a particular goal

AUTOMATIC PROCESS (PARALLEL)

Requires little conscious awareness and mental effort, minimal attention and does not interfere with the performance of other activities


Characteristics of normal waking consciousness controlled automatic processes1

CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESSCONTROLLED & AUTOMATIC PROCESSES

THE STROOP EFFECT


Classroom activity1

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY

STROOP’S EXPERIMENTS - BOX 2.3 (pg.104-105)

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.10 (pg.107-108)


Homework1

HOMEWORK

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.5 (pg.106)

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.6 (pg.106)

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.7 (pg.106)


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS

USED TO DESCRIBE ANY STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THAT IS DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT FROM NORMAL WAKING CONSCIOUSNESS, IN TERMS OF LEVEL OF AWARENESS & EXPERIENCE, AND THE QUALITY OR INTENSITY OF SENSATIONS, PERCEPTIONS, THOUGHTS, FEELINGS & MEMORIES

  • DISTORTIONS OF PERCEPTION & COGNITION

  • TIME ORIENTATION

  • CHANGES IN EMOTIONAL AWARENESS

  • CHANGES IN SELF-CONTROL


Classroom activity perception of time during an altered state of consciouness

CLASSROOM ACTIVITYPERCEPTION OF TIME DURING AN ALTERED STATE OF CONSCIOUNESS

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.18 (pg.119)


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness distortions of perception cognition

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSDISTORTIONS OF PERCEPTION & COGNITION

PERCEPTION = the way that we experience the external environment

  • Sensory experiences are more vivid (eg.colours, tastes, smells, sounds)

  • People may hallucinate (experiencing things that are not happening)

  • They may see visions or hear non-existent voices

  • Normal pain threshold may increase

    COGNITION = thinking, problem-solving, memory

  • Thought processes are often disorganised

  • Thinking is illogical and lacking in sequence

  • Difficulties experienced in problem-solving

  • People have trouble remembering events that occurred


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness time orientation

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSTIME ORIENTATION

Estimation of time is frequently distorted

Time may appear to pass slower or faster depending on the situation

SLOW

FAST


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness changes in emotional awareness

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSCHANGES IN EMOTIONAL AWARENESS

Alcohol Induced ASC

  • People become more emotional and express these emotions more readily

  • May respond inappropriately to situations (eg. laugh at bad news)


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness changes in self control

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSCHANGES IN SELF-CONTROL

Alcohol Induced ASC

  • Individuals have difficulty in maintaining coordination and controlling movements

  • May behave aggressively or affectionately when they would normally not behave this way

    Hypnotic State

  • People become more susceptible to suggestion

  • Can gain greater self-control (eg. to quit smoking)


Homework2

HOMEWORK

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.11 (pg.111)


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness daydreaming

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSDAYDREAMING

AN ASC in which we shift our attention from external stimuli to internal thoughts, feelings and imagined scenarios

Daydreaming is more likely to occur when:

- we are stationary than when we are moving about

- we are alone

- we are waiting to fall asleep

- doing routine or boring activities


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness daydreaming1

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSDAYDREAMING

PURPOSES OF DAYDREAMING

  • Allow us to do in our fantasies what we can’t do in reality (this reduces the frustration and tension we experience from unfulfilled wishes and needs) (FREUD)

  • Enables us to mentally try out a range of courses of action that could be applied to various situations (SINGER, 1975)

  • May enable us to solve problems or to stay mentally alert in situations in which there is insufficient external stimulation (SCHACHTER, 1976)


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness alcohol induced state

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSALCOHOL-INDUCED STATE

Alcohol is a psychoactive drug

(chemicals that change conscious awareness, perception or moods)

STIMULANT VS DEPRESSANT

The specific effects of alcohol depend upon:

  • The concentration of the alcohol consumed

  • The amount of alcohol consumed

  • The conditions under which it is consumed

  • The rate of consumption

  • The amount of food in the person’s stomach

  • The person’s body weight, age, gender, body chemistry, physical wellbeing, emotional state and mood


Characteristics of altered states of consciousness alcohol induced state1

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESSALCOHOL-INDUCED STATE

THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL

INCLUDE:

  • A shortened attention span

  • Impaired perceptions

  • Impaired thinking

  • Impaired memory

  • Slower reaction times

  • Reduced self-awareness

  • Impaired emotional awareness and control

  • Impaired perception of time

  • Less self-control

  • Difficulties with voluntary muscle control and fine movements

  • Deterioration in performance of complex tasks


Homework3

HOMEWORK

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.12 (pg.114)

LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.13 (pg.114)


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