Civil Rights Movement. Unit 10. “That all men are created equal…”. Take a moment…. In one minute…. See how many key terms you can identify that are related to the Civil Rights Movement In one minute…
“That all men are created equal…”
The Civil Rights Movement aka “The Mother” Movement
NAACP (W.E.B. DuBois, 1910)
A. Phillip Randolph & “The Double V Campaign”
Brown v. Board of Education 1954
THE WOMEN’S MOVEMENT
Betty Freidan’s The Feminine Mystique (1963)
JFK’s Commission on the Status of Women (1961)
NOW (National Organization for Women) (1966)
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
& Martin Luther King, 1957
Rosa Parks &Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)
SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (1960)
Free Speech Movement, Berkeley (1964)
SDS Students for a Democratic Society
Port Huron Statement
Mobilization to End the War
500,000 in DC (1969)
Woolworth Sit-Ins (1960)
March on Washington (1963)
Freedom Summer (1964)
Goodman, Schwerner & Chaney
Stokley Carmichael & Black Panthers
Title 7 of Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimination based on race and sex
Civil Rights Act (1964)
Voting Rights Act (1965)
League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
La Raza Unida (Mexican-Americans United)
AIM – American Indian Movement (1968)
Standoff at Wounded Knee (1973)
Lyndon Johnson assumed the presidency after the death of President Kennedy and continued Kennedy’s reforms which included improving the nations goods, tax cuts, civil rights legislation and a ‘war on poverty’.
LBJ’s “Great Society” propelled to victory in the 1964 election and gave birth to the Job Corps and the Head Start Preschool program which are both active today.
By 1966 the country’s attention had shifted to the war in Vietnam and LBJ’s important domestic work would be overshadowed by the Vietnam War.
You need 7 total notecards for this unit!
Story: High School students wore black armbands to protest fighting in Vietnam War
Today: Protests are a right of under the 1st amendment. However, if it’s causing harm to others, you can’t just say and do whatever you want…
Review: In Plessy v Ferguson, the Supreme Court upheld the legality of Jim Crow laws and other forms of racial discrimination
Ground Breaking: Sweatt v. Painter (1946): HemanSweatt (a black man) applied for admission to the Texas Law School but, rejected because of his race (separate but equal), but the school they would create for blacks was found to “unequal”
Mendez v. Westminster (1946) ruled that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican Americans into special schools only for Hispanic children was unconstitutional.
In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka the Supreme court ruled that segregated schools (separate, but equal) were illegal. Note: This case overturned Plessy v. Ferguson.
Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer for both court cases and represented the NAACP
Delgado v. Bastrop (1948) made it illegal to separate Hispanic children within schools because of their ethnicity, but it did allow for separate classes based on language deficiency which schools often used to continue segregation
Hernandez v. Texas (1954) ruled that the 14th Amendment should apply to Mexican Americans and all ethnic groups and juries should represent various ethnicities and genders.
These court cases were the foundation for Brown v Board of Education and desegregation in general
Mexican school class photograph, Cotulla, Texas, 1928. The young teacher in the center is future U.S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson.
Due for all classes by March 6th at 4:00 PM
A ‘sit-in’ was a means of peaceful protest to racial discrimination
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. discrimination
James Earl Ray discrimination
Exactly what led James Earl Ray to kill Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. continues to be a source of debate, as does his role in the murder. Evidence does suggest that Ray had little stomach for the integration policies that were sweeping the country. In addition to his segregationist beliefs, he also saw a big payday, some historians have said, in killing black leaders like H. Rap Brown, Stokely Carmichael and, of course, King.
In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat on a Montgomery, AL bus to a white man.
Civil rights leaders lead by Martin Luther King Jr. organized a boycott of city busses and the NAACP appealed Park’s conviction.
After nearly a year of boycotting city busses, the city of Montgomery desegregated (integrated) its public transportation system.
This type of non-violent protest along with sit-ins and marches were essential to the Civil Rights movement.
Red = African American discrimination
Blue = All Americans
Malcolm X discrimination
Native Americans were uniformly granted American citizenship along with their tribal citizenship in 1924.
The Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 attempted to require tribal law to follow the basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed in the US Bill of Rights.
In 1968 the American Indian Movement (AIM) was founded to address the problems of poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment.
In 1969 the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) was formed to fight for Native American rights in public and higher education.
Hispanic Civil Rights and Culture discrimination
The number of women working rose from 25% in 1940 to 35% in 1960. By 1960, women’s wages were 40% lower than men’s wages.
In June 1963 President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act for women requiring employers to pay men and women equal for equal work. Not included were women in agricultural, professional or service industries.(about 2/3 of all women workers).
Women also received assistance from the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII of the act outlawed sexual discrimination in the workplace.
In June of 1966 Betty Friedan—author of the Feminine Mystic—co-founded the National Organization for Women (NOW ).
In 1971 Gloria Steinem founded the National Women’s Political Caucus to encourage women to run for political office.
In 1972, Congress passed the Education Amendments Act which outlawed sexual discrimination in higher education.
In 1973 the case of Roe v. Wadegave women the right to an abortion in their first trimester.
The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night — she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — "Is this all?"
The Feminine Mystique
Legislative Reforms of the 70’s minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night — she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — "Is this all?"