Chapter 27 light
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Chapter 27 Light. Early Concepts Greek philosophers thought that light consisted of tiny particles Soctrates and Plato thought that vision resulted from streamers or filaments emitted by the eye making contact with an object Empedocles taught that light traveled in waves.

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Chapter 27 Light

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Chapter 27 light

Chapter 27Light


Chapter 27 light

  • Early Concepts

  • Greek philosophers thought that light consisted of tiny particles

  • Soctrates and Plato thought that vision resulted from streamers or filaments emitted by the eye making contact with an object

  • Empedocles taught that light traveled in waves.

  • Christian Huygens, a contemporary of Newton argued that light was a wave.

  • He demonstrated that light seemed to travel in straight lines but in other circumstances it spreads out (diffraction). This supported the wave theory.

  • In 1905, Einstein published a theory explaining the photoelectric effect. According to this theory, light consists of particles called photons.

Photon – elementary particle and basic unit of electromagnetic radiation


Chapter 27 light

The Dual Nature of Light

The observation that light can behave as both a wave and a particle is called the dual nature of light


Chapter 27 light

  • Speed of Light

  • Danish astronomer Olaus Roemer (1675) made the first measurement

  • that showed that light travels at a finite speed by careful observations of Jupiter’s moons.

  • Albert Michelson (1880) performed the first experiment that measured the speed of light.


Chapter 27 light

  • Speed of light in vacuum: 300,000 km/s

  • 186,000 miles/s

  • Light Year: Distance that light travels in 1 year

  • A beam of light could make 7.5 trips around the earth in 1 second

  • Light takes about 8 minutes to travel from the sun to the earth

  • Light takes 4.2 years to travel from the nearest star, Alpha Centauri to Earth


Chapter 27 light

Microwaves are unable to pass through the screen in the window of a microwave because the wavelength of the microwaves is greater than the width of the holes in the screen:


Chapter 27 light

  • Light is emmitted by accelerating electric charges – often electrons in atoms

  • electromagnetic spectrum (see above)

  • Infrared waves – electromagnetic waves with a longer wavelength than the wavelength of red light

  • Ultraviolet waves – electromagnetic waves with a shorter wavelength than the wavelength of violet light


Chapter 27 light

  • Light is energy carried in an electromagnetic wave that is generated by vibrating electric charges.

  • When light is incident upon matter electrons in the matter are forced into vibration.

  • Exactly how a receiving material responds when light is incident upon it depends on the frequency of the light and the natural frequency of electrons in the material.

  • Glass and water are two materials that allow light to pass through in straight lines. They are transparent to light.

  • Materials that absorb light without reemission are opaque


Chapter 27 light

  • All materials that are springy (elastic) respond more to vibrations at some frequencies than others. Bells rings at a particular frequency, tuning forks vibrate at a particular frequency, and so do the eletrons in matter. The natural vibration frequencies of an electron depend on how strongly it is attached to a nearby nucleus. Different materials have different electric “spring strengths.”


Chapter 27 light

  • ray – a thin beam of light

  • shadow – formed where light rays cannot reach

  • umbra – total shadow

  • penumbra – partial shadow


Chapter 27 light

Crepuscular rays – columns of sunlit air separated by darker cloud-shadowed regions


Chapter 27 light

Polarization

When wave motion is confined to one plane it is said to be polarized.


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