Overview of the WIAT-II. ComprehensiveIndividually administeredGrades Pre Kindergarten through 16 Ages 4:0 to adulthood9 Subtests in 4 content areasTime:Pre-K - K45 minGrades 1 690 minGrades 7 1690 120 min. Overview of the WIAT-II. Nationally standardized with an age-based a
1. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Second Edition
2. Overview of the WIAT-II Comprehensive
Grades Pre Kindergarten through 16
Ages 4:0 to adulthood
9 Subtests in 4 content areas
Time: Pre-K - K 45 min
Grades 1 – 6 90 min
Grades 7 – 16 90 –120 min
3. Overview of the WIAT-II Nationally standardized with an age-based and a grade-based sample.
Student Age - based sample of 2,950
Student Grade - based sample of 3,600
4. Overview of the WIAT-II Offers a full array of normative information
Age - based standard scores
Grade - based standard scores
Normal curve equivalents (NCEs)
Age and Grade equivalents for each of the subtests
Linked to the WPPSI-R; WISC-III; and WAIS-III
5. Development Goals of the WIAT - II Update the norms
Modification of subtests
Strengthen the link between assessment and instruction/intervention
Extension of the age range
Inclusion of ability – achievement discrepancy analysis using Verbal IQ, Performance IQ, and factor scores
Statistical linkage to a process instrument
Development of a “stand-alone” computer scoring program
6. Revisions Guided by Research, Standards and Mandates Reading Subtests
Report of the National Reading Panel (2000)
Research by Virginia Berninger and others funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD)
Consistent with the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000) by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Written Language Subtests
Research by Graham, Berninger, Abbott, Abbott, & Whitaker (1997), Berninger (1998; 2001), Moats (1995)
Oral Language Subtests
Representative of oral language activities as they occur in the classroom
Links language more closely to reading activities
7. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Word Reading
Accuracy of word recognition Word Reading
Alphabet principle (letter-sound awareness)
Accuracy of word recognition
Automaticity of word recognition
8. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Pseudoword Decoding
None Pseudoword Decoding
Accuracy of word attack
9. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Reading Comprehension
Inferential comprehension Reading Comprehension
Oral reading accuracy
Oral reading fluency
Oral reading comprehension
Word recognition in context
10. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Spelling
Alphabet principle (sound-letter awareness)
Written spelling of regular and irregular words
Written spelling of homonyms (integration of spelling and lexical comprehension) Spelling
Alphabet principle (sound-letter awareness)
Written spelling of regular and irregular words
Written spelling of homonyms (integration of spelling and lexical comprehension)
11. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Written Expression
Descriptive writing (evaluated on extension and elaboration, grammar and usage, ideas and development, organization, unity, and coherence, and sentence structure and variety)
Narrative writing (evaluated on the same criteria as descriptive) Written Language
Timed alphabet writing
Word fluency writing
Written responses to verbal and visual cues
Descriptive writing (evaluated on organization, vocabulary, and mechanics)
12. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Written Expression Written Language
Persuasive writing (evaluated on organization, vocabulary, theme development, and mechanics)
Writing fluency (based on word count)
13. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Numerical Operations
Calculation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
Fractions, decimals, algebra Numerical Operations
One to one correspondence
Numerical identification and writing
Calculation (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
Fractions, decimals, algebra
14. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II Math Reasoning
Money, time, and measurement
Reading and interpreting charts and graphs
Statistics Math Reasoning
Multi-step problem solving
Money, time, and measurement
Reading and interpreting charts and graphs
Statistics and probability
15. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II
16. Changes from WIAT to WIAT-II
Explain steps in sequential tasks
Word fluency (oral)
Auditory short-term recall for contextual information
Explaining steps in sequential tasks
17. Content Areas Covered by the WIAT-II
18. WIAT-II and Reading Reading Composite
19. WIAT-II and Mathematics Mathematics Composite
20. WIAT-II and Written Language Written Language
21. WIAT-II and Oral Language Oral Language
22. WIAT-II Testing Considerations Testing Considerations
Sit so that you and the examinee can see the stimuli
Consider the time of day you are testing
Evaluate the examinee’s mood, affect, and attitude
23. WIAT-II Testing Considerations Some basic things to remember:
The WIAT-II was not designed to be used as a measure of academic giftedness in adolescents.
Build rapport and engage the child or adult before starting testing (i.e., informal conversation)
Maintain a steady pace but be flexible. Pay attention to changes in the examinee’s mood, activity level, and cooperation
If you must take a break, do so at the end of a subtest.
24. Assessing the Physically Challenged Familiarize yourself with the examinee’s limitations
Balance the need for accommodation with the need to maintain standard procedures
Note modifications on the record form and in your report
25. Assessing the Physically Challenged Use your clinical judgment to evaluate the impact of your modifications
Modifications may invalidate the use of norms; but still result in useful qualitative and quantitative information
REMEMBER assessment should be based on multiple sources of information
26. WIAT-II Administration Stimulus Book One:
Pseudoword Decoding Stimulus Book Two:
27. Things to Remember Consult the Stimulus Booklets and Record Form about
Teaching or Modeling
Repetition of Items
28. WIAT-II Scoring Considerations Don’t penalize for slang, informal language, or regional variations of pronunciation.
Don’t penalize for articulation problems.
Give credit for spontaneous corrections.
Don’t give credit for spoiled responses.
On multiple responses, score only the last response.
If an examinee gives a correct response and an incorrect response, ask which one is intended, and score that response.
29. Completing the WIAT-II Record Form
30. WIAT – II Parent Report Front page folds out and can be detached from the rest of the record form.
The detachable page contains the Parent Report on which test results can be provided.
The back of the Parent Report contains a description of each WIAT-II subtest and a graph, based on the bell curve, where you can plot scores.
31. Helpful Abbreviations When Recording Responses Q - Query or question
DK - Don’t know
CR - Can’t remember
PC - Pointed correctly
PX - Pointed incorrectly
NR - No response
32. Completing the Score Conversion Worksheet Determine whether you will use grade-based or age-based normative data.
Transfer the Total Raw Score from each of the subtests to the space provided.
Use Appendix C or Appendix F to obtain the standard score for each subtest.
Transfer the subtest standard scores to the Summary Report on the front of the record form.
33. Supplemental Score Conversion Worksheet
Continue to use either grade-based or age-based norms.
Transfer the Total Raw Scores for the supplemental scores from the subtests to the space provided.
Use Appendix B or Appendix E to obtain the quartiles or decile for each total raw score.
34. Supplemental Score Conversion Worksheet For Oral Expression Word Fluency only, transfer the converted score from the Oral Expression subtest. Divide the converted score by 2 and record the quotient in the oval to the right of the previously recorded converted score.
Transfer the supplemental quartiles or decile to the Summary Report.
35. Completing the Summary Report
Complete demographic information and calculate age.
Indicate whether you used grade-based or age-based standard scores.
Transfer the subtest standard scores from the Raw Score Conversion worksheet.
Calculate the composite standard scores by summing the subtest standard scores, then use Table C.2 or Table F.2.
36. Completing the Summary Report If desired, supply the confidence interval information for each subtest and composite.
If desired, supply the confidence interval information for each subtest and composite.
If you wish to obtain percentile ranks, NCE’s, or stanines for the subtest and composite standard scores, use Table D.3 or Table G.3.
If you wish to obtain grade or age equivalents, you must use the subtest raw scores rather than the standard scores. Use Table D.4 or G.4.
37. Completing the Summary Report To calculate the Total Composite score, sum the standard scores of all 9 of the subtests, then use Table C.2 or Table F.2 to convert this sum to a Total Composite standard score.
If desired, transfer the Supplemental scores from the Supplemental Score Conversion worksheet.
38. Completing the Ability – Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Record the name of the ability test used and the date of ability testing.
For each ability-achievement discrepancy you wish to calculate, enter the Wechsler score in the Ability Standard Score column.
Decide whether you want to use the predicted-achievement or the simple-difference method.
Use Appendix H to determine WIAT-II scores predicted from Wechsler scores. Subtract the actual WIAT-II score from the predicted score.
39. Completing the Ability – Achievement Discrepancy Analysis If using Simple Difference, subtract the actual WIAT-II subtest score from the ability standard score.
Determine whether each ability-achievement discrepancy is statistically significant using Appendix I or Appendix J.
Determine how frequently a statistically significant difference occurred in the standardization linking sample using Appendix I or Appendix J.
40. Word Reading
Assesses early reading (phonological awareness) and word recognition and decoding skills. Items evaluate the naming of letters of the alphabet, the identification and generation of rhyming words, the identification of beginning and ending sounds of words, the blending of sounds into words, and the matching of sounds with letters and letter blends. Both word reading accuracy and automaticity can be evaluated.
41. Word Reading Scoring Considerations
If you want to evaluate automaticity, check the >3” column next to the item when the examinee requires more than 3 seconds to respond correctly.
You may also mark when the examinee self corrects on an item by placing a check mark in the column labeled SC.
The >3” and SC check marks are not used when calculating the Total Raw Score for the subtest, but they provide useful qualitative information.
42. Word Reading Letter Identification and Phonological
Items 4-29: Letter recognition and identification
using all 26 alphabet letters
Items 30-33: Phonological awareness
Items 34-38: Phonemic categorization
Items 39-41: Phonemic blending
Items 42-47: Sound-symbol relationships
43. Word Reading Word Reading Items
High frequency “sight” words
Initial or final consonants
Consonant digraphs (/th/, /sh/, /ph/, /ch/)
Consonant blends (/sl/, /fr/, /pl/)
CVVC (consonant, vowel, vowel, consonant pattern)
Syllabication (dividing the word into syllables)
Prefixes, suffixes, and roots
Applying pronunciation and accent rules
44. Word Reading Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:
Substitutes visually similar letters
Provides nonword responses for rhyming words
Pronounces words automatically
Laboriously “sounds out” words
Self corrects errors
Loses place when reading words
Makes accent errors
Adds, omits, or transposes syllables
45. Numerical Operations Description
Assesses the ability to identify and write numbers, count using 1:1 correspondence, and solve written calculation problems and simple equations involving the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Use a pencil without an eraser. If a mistake is made, the examinee should mark through it and write the correction beside it.
46. Numerical Operations Items 1 – 7: Identification, discrimination, and ability to write numerals.
Items 3 and 6: Rote counting and counting with 1:1 correspondence.
Items 8 – 54: Basic operations, in increasing complexity, of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
47. Numerical Operations Interpretation
Use the Skill Analysis to evaluate:
Inconsistent performance of specific skills
Difficulty with multi-digit calculation
Difficulty with specific processes (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
Difficulty with specific types of numbers (fractions, decimals)
48. Numerical Operations Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:
Writes incorrectly formed or reversed numerals
Uses fingers/aids for counting or calculating
Demonstrates automaticity of math facts
Conversion problems (horizontal to vertical)
Uses place value correctly
Makes sequential errors
49. Reading Comprehension Description
Designed to measure the types of reading comprehension skills taught in the classroom and used in everyday life. Initial items involve matching written words with representative pictures. Later items include reading sentences aloud and reading different types of passages, then answering questions involving the comprehension of content, such as identifying the main idea and specific details, making inferences, and defining vocabulary by using context cues.
Supplemental scores for Target Words and Reading Speed
50. Target Words: Reading Sentences Aloud Evaluates the ability to read words in context
Assesses oral reading in conjunction with comprehension
Yields a supplemental score for Target Words which is reported as a quartile score
51. Reading Comprehension Passages Three types of passages are included in each set of grade-specific items
Yields a supplemental score for Reading Speed which is reported as a quartile score
Scored 0, 1, or 2 based on accuracy and quality of response
Additional scoring examples are included in the Scoring and Normative Supplements
52. Reading Comprehension Interpretation
Look at each of the following eight objectives and analyze the student’s mastery of that objective.
Using Picture Clues - Given a sentence and a picture depicting the content of the sentence, answer a question directly relating to an action or detail in the picture.
Recognizing Stated Detail - Given a passage,restate a piece of information stated directly in the passage.
53. Reading Comprehension Sequencing - Given a passage that contains a sequence of events or steps in a process, identify the event or step requested.
Recognizing Stated Cause and Effect - Given a passage, state the cause or effect in a cause-effect relationship stated directly in the passage.
Recognizing Implied Cause and Effect - Given a passage, state the implied cause or implied effect for a cause-effect relationship occurring within the passage.
54. Reading Comprehension
Predicting Events and Outcomes - Given a passage containing a series of events or background information, state an event or outcome that is likely to happen.
Drawing Conclusions - Given a passage, state the conclusion that can best be inferred from information stated in the passage.
55. Reading Comprehension Comparing and Contrasting - Given a passage, explain either the similarity or the difference between characters, objects, or events in the passage.
Research on the relationship between reading and listening has shown that listening comprehension is developed earlier than reading comprehension and that the young child has a larger listening vocabulary than reading vocabulary.
56. Reading Comprehension Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:
Reading passage aloud or silently when given a choice
Refers back to the passage in order to answer questions
Reads sentences fluently
Uses context clues when decoding
Uses phonetic decoding skills
57. Spelling Description
Assesses the examinee’s ability to spell by writing letters and letter blends that match specific sounds and writing words. Homonyms were included to reflect utilization of context clues to select the appropriate spelling.
Examinee uses a pencil without an eraser. Allow the examinee about 10 seconds to begin writing.
58. Spelling Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:
Difficulty with single consonant letter/sound or consonant letter cluster/sound relationships
Spelling errors occur at the beginning, medial position, or ending of words
Write and rewrites a word several ways to determine which “looks” right
59. Spelling Omits suffixes that mark tense or part of speech (-ed, -ing, -ly)
Makes errors on contractions
Writes the incorrect homonym
60. Spelling Interpretation
Misspellings are indicative of the developmental stage of the speller.
The cross-checking of spelling and word-reading performance can provide important supplemental information about an examinee’s ability to visualize and manipulate the sounds in words.
61. Spelling For example
Difficulty spelling regular words suggests a review of spelling rules and word analysis skills.
Good spelling of regular words but difficulty spelling irregular words suggests a review of the concept of “exceptions” to spelling rules.
Poor spelling of homophones suggests instruction in detecting context clues in sentences, along with direct practice with homophones.
62. Pseudoword Decoding Description
Measures the ability to apply phonetic decoding skills. The list of nonsense words are designed to be representative of the phonetic structure of words in the English language.
Recording errors phonetically can help with later error analysis.
63. Pseudoword Decoding Interpretation
The Pseudoword Decoding subtest can be used to evaluate whether the phonological decoding mechanism is developing in an age-appropriate manner.
Frequently, older students who are struggling in reading, will demonstrate non-mastery of the alphabet principle as they are unable to decode unfamiliar words.
64. Math Reasoning Description
The examinee counts, identifies geometric shapes, and solves single- and multi-step word problems, including items related to time, money, and measurement in response to both verbal and visual prompts. The examinee solves problems with whole numbers, fractions or decimals, interprets graphs, identifies mathematical patterns, and solves problems related to statistics and probability.
65. Math Reasoning Interpretation
Use the Skills Analysis to evaluate:
Problem Solving (Word Problems and Consumer Math)
Numeration and Number Concepts
Probability and Statistics
66. Math Reasoning Use the Qualitative Observations to note the frequency of the following:
Uses paper and pencil for calculation
Organizes work to facilitate problem-solving
Uses concrete aids for computation
Breaks multi-step problem into smaller units
Disregards irrelevant information
Uses correct operation to calculate solution
Employs use of an effective strategy to problem solve
67. Examples of Strategies Include Guessing and checking
Drawing pictures and tables of information
Eliminating extraneous information
Developing a formula or written equation
Constructing a model
Estimating an answer and then working backwards
Attempting to simplify a problem
68. Written Expression Description
Assesses the writing process. It is divided into 5 sections: Alphabet Writing, Word Fluency, Sentences, Paragraph, and Essay.
Alphabet Writing (PreK-Grade 2) is timed and is a measure of automaticity and recall of sequential information.
Word Fluency assesses the ability to generate and write a list of words that match a prescribed category.
Sentences evaluate the ability to combine multiple sentences into one, meaningful sentence, or the ability to generate a sentence from visual or verbal cues.
69. Written Expression The Paragraph (given to Grades 3-6) can be evaluated analytically using a rubric scoring system based on organization, vocabulary, and writing mechanics (spelling and punctuation).
The Essay (given to Grades 7-16) can be evaluated analytically using a rubric scoring system based on organization, vocabulary, theme development and writing mechanics.
Both the the Paragraph and the Essay can be scored holistically, but analytic scoring is required for a subtest standard score.
Word count is a Supplemental score.
70. Written Expression Interpretation
This is a direct way of measuring an examinee’s written discourse.
This goes beyond the indirect method of assessing writing ability by measuring vocabulary and editing skills. Written Expression addresses vocabulary, editing skills, and skills in formulating an idea and developing that idea into coherent discourse.
71. Written Expression Analytic
Considered somewhat more reliable than holistic method.
Provides differentiated information on strengths and weaknesses.
Necessary for ability-achievement discrepancy analysis. Holistic
Skilled scorers can accomplish the same things as those using analytic approach.
Provides general overview of child’s writing ability.
May be used initially to screen responses.
72. Listening Comprehension Description
Divided into three sections: Receptive Vocabulary, Sentence Comprehension, and Expressive Vocabulary.
Subtest is designed to measure the ability to listen for detail by selecting the picture that matches a word or sentence, and generating a word that matches a picture and an oral description.
73. Listening Comprehension Interpretation
The verbal communication skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing are interrelated and therefore have become integrated in modern language-arts instruction.
Performance on each objective can also be compared to performance on the parallel Reading Comprehension objective.
74. Listening Comprehension Things to look for:
A response indicating that the child is focusing either on the picture or the definition for the item word, but not both.
A response in which the child restates the definition in the item.
A response that is an invented word, such as “clockulator” rather than “calculator.”
75. Listening Comprehension
When comparing Reading Comprehension to Listening Comprehension, children typically develop listening comprehension earlier than reading ability.
76. Oral Expression Description
Oral Expression has four sections: Sentence Repetition (administered only to Grades PreK – 3), Word Fluency, Visual Passage Retell, and Giving Directions.
Requires the examinee to produce oral language to recall and repeat, categorize, describe, and provide information to direct others.
77. Ability -Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Public Law 94-142 specifies the following criteria:
1. The child does not achieve commensurate with his or her age and ability levels in one or more of the areas listed, when provided with learning experiences appropriate for the child’s age and ability levels; and
78. Ability -Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Public Law 94-142 specifies the following criteria:
2. The [multidisciplinary] team finds that a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the following areas:
Word reading skill
79. Ability -Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Two Basic Approaches:
Predicted - Achievement Method
Simple - Difference Method
80. Ability -Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Limitations of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
Reynolds has cautioned that “determining a severe discrepancy does not constitute the diagnosis of LD; it only establishes that the primary symptom of LD exists”.
Evidence separate from test results should indicate that the child has a “failure to achieve” or lack of attainment in one of the principal areas of school learning.
Clinical evidence and direct observations must indicate that the child may have some form of “psychological process disorder” such as attention and concentration difficulties or problems of conceptualization, information processing, or comprehension of written and spoken language.
81. Ability -Achievement Discrepancy Analysis Limitations of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy Analysis
The examiner must ascertain that observed behavior, symptoms, or deficits in the child’s learning are not due to other factors such as sensory incapacity (visual or hearing impairment), mental retardation, emotional disturbance, and educational and economic disadvantages.
Similarly, the examiner must determine that deficits do not result from factors in the medical or developmental history of the child. These factors include prenatal medical problems; delayed speech; hearing or visual development; brain injury or illnesses that cause neurological damage; difficulties with physical development or motor coordination problems; and many other risk factors.