On-line Teaching History. Fall 1996, Developed the first on-line course for the MSQA An international programIn Fall 2000 the Nursing program launched the first set of on-line courses. Teach 100% on-line . Also includes a clinical courseCurrently, students, if they choose, can attend on-line c
1. 1 Web-Based Teaching: Strategies and Methods for Designing a Web-Based Course Cynthia G. Johnson RN, Ed. D.
Douglas Borcoman, Ed. D.
School of Nursing
CSU Dominguez Hills
2. On-line Teaching History Fall 1996, Developed the first on-line course for the MSQA –An international program
In Fall 2000 the Nursing program launched the first set of on-line courses.
Teach 100% on-line . Also includes a clinical course
Currently, students, if they choose, can attend on-line classes for the entire program.
3. On-Line Teaching History………… The average student is about the mid 30’s and takes an average course load of about 6-8 units on line.
All course materials and handouts are provided on-line.
Occasionally students will use the United States mail and fax for communication.
Disabled students use all of the above methods of communication
4. Educators + Computers + Internet + WWW = Power Tool Reasons for this Powerful equation :
“We are Currently witnessing the greatest explosion of change to affect the field of education in decades, perhaps in all history.”
(Educator’s Internet Companion)
5. Forces Driving the Changes in Education Societal Events and Economic Trends
Changes and Development in the Workplace
Changes in Student Demographics
The Use of Computers
Access to the Internet and WWW
6. Internet The Internet is a dynamic growing network of information experts and peers that are attached electronically and who share experiences with each other.
7. Definitions of the Internet Varies based on a person’s viewpoint:
Social Definition: A community of people who use and develop the networks
Applications Definition: A collections of resources that can be reached via the networks
8. Definitions…………. Technical Definition: A network of networks based on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP?IP).
Protocol: Set of conventions specifying how data will be transmitted between computers.
TCP/IP is the language that all computers on the internet use to communicate with each other
IP: Specifies the way in which data will be communicated between computers on a network
TCP: makes sure the data arrives correctly and in the proper order.
9. Access to the internet The internet is the world’s largest computer network connecting millions of computers all over the world
The World Wide Web (web) is the fastest growing and most dynamic feature/system of the Internet. It is a special graphical interface that allows an individual to access and navigate (browse) the internet.
10. Access to the Internet Millions of people (increasing at a rate of one million per month) are estimated to have access to the internet
Millions more are passionately involved in education and research
11. Primary Features of the Internet E-Mail - the most used feature
News Group -
File transfer Protocol (ftp)
World Wide Web - fastest growing
12. Terms The terms On-Line, E -education, and Web-based will be used interchangeably during this presentation
13. Use of Computers in Education Four major ways Computers are used with students:
Computer Literacy classes
14. Types of Instruction Types of Instruction:
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) - the computer is used as a supplement to the course.
Web-Based Instruction - the delivery of a course with the assistance of the WWW
15. Types of e-education Hybrid
16. Use of Computers in Nursing Education Education:
Formal nursing at a college or school:
Education in a hospital setting:
Computer mediated instruction
Distance education (www.aacn.org)
17. Use of Computers in Nursing Education Research:
Healthcare Information sites
18. Use of Computers in Nursing Education Practice:
Sites for various diseases
Sites for wellness education
The World Wide Web represents a new concept in technology. For example the library is on your desktop and a dictionary is at your fingertips.
20. Distance Education Distance Education (teaching and Learning) is a broad term that can refer to any sort of education in which the instruction occurs at one place and the educational Institution is somewhere else.
21. Distance Education Distance teaching and learning rely heavily on a “computer mediated communication” system.
Focuses on person-to-person interaction
Refers to the use of computer networks to allow learners in different geographical locations to interact with one another
Interaction occurs either in synchronous (real-time) or asynchronous (delayed) mode via a text-based communication anytime anywhere
22. Distance Education……….. This structure also allows interaction by providing a combination of database and conferencing system that allow people to exchange messages and carry out asynchronous discussions in
an organized manner.
23. Advantages of Distance Education It makes education possible for people who are separated geographically
It allows the participation of people who cannot access the system all at the same time because of work, family, and responsibilities
24. Advantages of Distance Education Convenient
Decreased fear of participation
Cost savings in travel time, fuel use and parking
25. Barriers Decreased student face-to-face interactions
Fewer instructors produce a less diverse viewpoints
26. Online Learning “On-line learning provides tremendous opportunities for providing pedagogical choices to learners that cannot be provided by a single professor in a classroom” (Arone, 2002).
27. Benefits of On-line Learning Learning is an active and engaged process.
Rather than being told what to do or how to solve a problem, students are able to generate their own learning.
On-line learning involves social negotiation.
Students are able to challenge their thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, and existing knowledge by collaborating with other students thus assisting their cognitive development process.
28. Benefits of On-Line Learning On-line education provides a unique opportunity to use multiple representations of knowledge in terms of media.
On-line students are given space and learn at their own pace, in their own way, and at their own time (night or day, week day or week end).
On-line students assume more responsibility and are willing to do more rather than less work and learn according to their own styles.
29. On-Line Learner Characteristics Learner must be:
Exhibit several learning styles
30. Benefits of On-line Teaching The instructor’s role is that of a facilitator, guide or coach, probing students’ thinking and monitoring their thinking.
The role changes from provider to instructional designer
The role changes from information provider to facilitator and moderator.
The instructor is less of an entertainer and a provider of information,
The instructor is not a sage on the stage but a guide on the side
31. Benefits of On-Line Teaching As on-line students assume more responsibilities, the instructor is exposed to new experiences, which in turn brings on added excitement about teaching.
Instructors get more revitalized in the midst of a heavier workload
On-line instructors also delegate control to other resources and in fact encourage students to thoroughly search the web
32. Benefits of On-Line Teaching The instructor guides them to the important resources and let them discover what it is, so that they can construct their own knowledge in a constructive kind of a framework.
33. On-Line Environment To create an effective on-line environment four attributes are paramount (Agostinho et al.,1997);
Providing opportunities to foster personal construction of knowledge
Setting an appropriate context for the learning
Facilitating collaboration amongst learners, through the use of
34. Stages in Planning an On-line course Determine if a demand exists
Examine your mission
Identify policies 9internal and external) that might affect the success
Identify driving and restraining forces
Determine how the program will be administered
35. Stages in Planning an On-line Course Build a broad base of support for the legitimacy and value of on-line education in your organization
Examine the current programs for adaptability to an on-line model
Evaluate the cost effectiveness
Examine the availability of your communication system
36. Stages in Planning an On-line course Ensure that the support services meet the needs of on-line learners
Select instructors carefully
Develop an effective training program (both in technology and on-line teaching and learning).
Think of space for training, equipment, conferencing
Develop an evaluation plan
37. Stages in Planning an On-line course Determine if you will develop a program or selective courses
Think of the methods of delivering the course –what platform will be used?
What print material will be used?
Anticipate how instructors and students will react
Developing a course may take four to six months of planning, experiment with the technology, and developing
38. Development of a course Advanced work is needed in the following:
Evaluation and Follow-up
39. Preparation of Instructor - Technical Faculty must:
Be Computer literate
Develop a computer filing system
Develop communication techniques with your technical support staff
40. Preparation - Mental Faculty need:
A burning desire to explore
To be Flexible
Openness to an alternative way of teaching
Ability to work with a multidisciplinary team
41. Designing the Course Decide on the specific educational objectives
Ask the question: What interactive activities are needed to fulfill the objectives?
42. Designing the Course Decide on the use or non-use of a main textbook or several textbooks
Decide on the specific objectives
Decide on interactive activities
Design the weekly lessons and discussion topics
43. Designing the Course Prepare the syllabus –Online Pedagogy
Include at least three assignments requiring a web search
Include a web resource list
Include case studies or scenarios relating to the subject matter
44. Designing the Course Weekly collaborative work such as discussions questions
Include group/collaborative work requiring students to act in different roles
Review various software applications with your web-master
45. Designing the Course Get all the necessary approvals and permissions
Practice with the software
Have many trial runs with the software
Keep your fingers crossed
46. Creating an Online Syllabus Answer the following:
What will be the primary method of communication?
How will groups be formed?
How will you response to the discussion responses?
How will you address learning styles?
How will you troubleshoot the technology?
How will changes be made?
47. Creating an on-Line Syllabus Include the following:
Technical and content instructions
Include group/collaborative work requiring students to act in different roles
Include group projects, web assignments, case studies, and weekly collaborative work such as discussions questions
48. Creating an On-line Syllabus
Plan to write a minimum of 14-15 lessons in advance
Include the course objectives
Develop evaluation strategies
49. Creating an On-Line Syllabus Include at least three assignments requiring a web search
Include a web resource list
Include case studies or scenarios that provide application of the subject matter
50. Creating an on-Line Syllabus Develop evaluation strategies
Collaborative work requiring students to act in different roles
Design the weekly lessons and discussion topics
51. Course Development: Strategies Used for Collaboration E-mail use is encouraged from student to instructor but discouraged from student to student on matters relating to the class
Live Chat Discussion:
This tool is used synchronously during class sessions
52. Course Development: Strategies Used for Collaboration Weekly Assignments: Individual –
Students search the web for articles and information on the weekly topics. Information is posted on the main discussion board for other students to comment, discuss and react.
Students conduct interviews and post on the discussion board for their colleagues to comment, discuss and react.
53. Course Development: Strategies Used for Collaboration Group Collaboration –
Structured Asynchronous Threaded Discussions:
Mirrors a classroom discussion where the instructor maintains a public presence on a discussion board.
The syllabus and assignments provide weekly discussion topics.
54. Course Delivery Students work in groups of four or five and rotate as team leaders every two weeks.
Team leaders lead the on-line discussions, summarize the group members’ response to the discussion topics, and
Team Leaders post a summary on the main discussion board for colleagues to discuss, comment and react
55. Course Delivery Students are able to create forum/ conferences on their group discussion board and respond to classmates on the main classroom discussion board
Classmates receive participation points for reading, commenting, asking questions, and contributing to the topics.
Student feedback is usually positive. Some students do not like to collaborate on projects and prefer to work alone.
56. Course Delivery Communication is crucial
Addressing Learning styles
Responding to weekly discussion topics
Working with the web-master
57. Multimedia Windows Media-Producer, Movie Maker
58. Choosing Multimedia Methods Ease of use
59. Examples Windows Media
60. On-Line Assessment Evaluation strategies:
Contract fulfillment summary
Timetable for posting class discussions
Interviews with Home Health nurses
Scavenger hunt for community agencies
61. Assessing Participants in an On-line Environment Surveys
62. Advantages for Faculty Faculty has control over the content, standards, design, and assessment of student learning
Faculty give up control of the delivery of information
Better monitoring of students
Good data base of information
63. Advantages for Students Get updated information from the web
Work at different rates
Become more independent in learning
Have a private interaction with the computer
Can ask questions without fear
Increase spelling and vocabulary skills
64. Advantages for Students Get updated information on research, education and practice from around the world
Work at different rates
Be more independent in learning
65. Advantage for Students Students have a private interaction with the computer
Computers are infinitely patient .
Students can ask questions without fear
Web-Based instruction has a potential for increasing spelling skills and vocabulary
66. Lessons Learned Students prefer a more structured environment
Students come with various levels of computer literacy.
More time is needed for preparation and teaching
All students get a chance to participate.
67. Lessons Learned Students prefer a structured environment
Students have various levels of computer literacy
All students get a chance to participate
Faculty needs more up-front time for preparation and teaching
Faculty and students have a data base of web sites
68. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Efficiency and Convenience:
Distance Barriers are removed
The learning environment is active and student centered
69. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Student motivation (cont’d):
Socialization, personal interactions and peer pressure motivate students to achieve.
Students can be inspired by knowing the labors and insights of their peers
Shy or reserved students are motivated and empowered to contribute and be listened to.
70. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses
Effective Instructional Delivery :
Information is automatically stored in written form
Students share in evolving an automatically organized information base
Procedures can be customized for different learning styles and abilities
71. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Improved Conditions for Learning:
Conferencing software creates a collaborative learning environment
Students have ample time to reflect on the problems before posting responses and interacting .
Personality distractions and conflicts can be minimized
72. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses
Better Assessment of Student Progress
Each student is accountable
Students who are lagging behind can’t get lost
73. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Availability to students – 24/7
74. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Web-based teaching increases student faculty contact and makes the contact time and place independent. It is more time efficient and convenient.
Socialization, personal interactions, and peer pressure motivate students to achieve
Faculty give up control of the delivery and provider of information.
75. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Better assessment of student progress and class participation
Students value communications with their instructors as much or even more than
communications with their classmates (Mutually & Tello, 2000).
76. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Conditions for learning and the learning environment are certainly improved.
Students are accountable for contributing to the class.
Students produce better researched work.
77. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Shy or reserved students are motivated and even empowered to contribute.
Information is automatically stored in written form.
Distance barriers are removed
78. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses
Students from different gender, race or ethnic groups can work together on a project for the entire semester.
79. Reasons for Students to Take Web-Based Courses Students can work at different rates.
Students can be motivated by knowing the labors of their peers.
The environment is conducive to learning and it is student friendly.
Students can ask questions without fear that the questions are silly or stupid.
80. Reasons for Students to Take Web-Based Courses Students are left with a database of information and web sites at the end of the semester.
Students have more frequent access to their faculty member
Students feel more comfortable probably because of less pressure to be rushed.
81. Reasons for Students to Take a Web-Based Course
82. Key Challenges: Assessment
1. What role do you want assessment to play in the on-line teaching and learning experience?
2. What kinds of assessment are appropriate given the distant learners and the objectives they need to attain?
3. Describe the assessment conducted in the classroom that gives the most useful information for planning upcoming instructions?
4. How are the results of assessment (formal or informal) shared with students?
83. Key Challenges: Accessibility -
How do we continue to reach and educate students despite their location, schedules, cultural differences, or physical disabilities?
84. Key Challenges: Quality –
How do we continue to provide a quality program with the budget environment and fiscal constraints? Equipment, graphics, digitization and multimedia can be expensive.
How do we guard against information overload?
85. Key Challenges: Documenting Student Achievement
What kinds of products will the learners generate?
What supporting technology will be needed to digitalize and store these products?
What levels of security and privacy for student work are appropriate?
What provisions will the professor make for learners to capture their work (assuming they want to keep a local copy)?
86. Questions to consider: Assessment:
What assessment process is used to ensure that the on-line student needs are met?
What assessment process is used to ensure that the needs of instructor teaching on-line are met?
What assessment process is used to ensure that the on-line instructor’s use of technology is reflected in the promotion process?
87. Questions to consider: Support What support structures ensure that instructor can effectively integrate technology into their teaching?
What support structures ensure that students benefit from the use of technology in the instructional process?
What support structures are used to ensure that the delivery system for instruction is reliable, consistent and accessible for both instructor and students?
88. Questions to Consider: Teaching How do you evaluate the effectiveness of use by the instructor?
How do you know what instructor and students are doing?
How is the instructor compensated for the extended workload?
89. Evaluation Formative – Receive information and judgments to assist in the revision and improvement of instructional programs
Summative – End of course summary
90. Evaluation Evaluation strategies:
Journals for hands on- application
Deadlines for posting class discussions
Interviews with home health nurses
91. Assessing Interactive Qualities of Distance Learning on-Line Courses Social rapport building activities created by the instructor
Instructional designs for learning created by the instructor
Levels of interactivity of teaching resources
Impact of interactivity – changes in learner behaviors
92. Evaluation Course Evaluation -content and progress in meeting the objectives
Online course software and technology evaluation
Student Evaluation –depth of knowledge
93. Evaluation Educational effectiveness is measured by the assessment of student learning outcomes defined by the course objectives.
Over ??% per cent of the students log on and post messages at least 4-5 times weekly.
The instructor can track when students are reading, when they are writing, and a lot of things about what they are doing when they are on-line.
The quality of the interaction can also be tracked.
94. Evaluation Develop a rubric for evaluating online course delivery
Instructor’s evaluation of the course:
Given to obtain realistic feedback on content and course delivery
11 Item questionnaire
Given at the end of the class
To be returned via instructor’s e-mail
Used for updating the course
95. Issues for Discussion
Maintaining the human element
96. Implications for Education Issues :
Access for students and instructor
Support for students and instructor
Hands- on experiences
Course & system Integrity
97. Can We Afford to be left Behind? As educators we can either:
allow students complete undirected access,
learn what is available on the Internet and
adjust our approaches to education ...or............
98. My thoughts……….. The World Wide Web represents a new concept in technology. For example the library is on your desktop and a dictionary is at your fingertips.
We are no longer the knowledge authority, located in front of the classroom.
99. Future……. Don’t adopt the four Ws approach to the future (adapted from Cyrs, 2000):
Wait for the next opportunity because we are not ready
Watch to see what other organizations are doing
Wonder how distance on-line learning could possibly be used
Wish the whole thing would go away
100. My thoughts........... As the internet expands, nursing educators and students have the opportunity to ride the wave of this explosion and fully use the internet to enhance course preparation, research, practice, and course delivery.
101. Conclusion For many people, getting involved with multimedia internet, and new ways to deliver education will be the most exciting and rejuvenating experience of their professional life.