Web-Based Teaching:  Strategies and Methods for Designing  a Web-Based Course

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On-line Teaching History. Fall 1996, Developed the first on-line course for the MSQA An international programIn Fall 2000 the Nursing program launched the first set of on-line courses. Teach 100% on-line . Also includes a clinical courseCurrently, students, if they choose, can attend on-line c

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Web-Based Teaching: Strategies and Methods for Designing a Web-Based Course

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1. 1 Web-Based Teaching: Strategies and Methods for Designing a Web-Based Course Cynthia G. Johnson RN, Ed. D. And Associate Professor Douglas Borcoman, Ed. D. Instructional Designer School of Nursing CSU Dominguez Hills Carson, CA

2. On-line Teaching History Fall 1996, Developed the first on-line course for the MSQA –An international program In Fall 2000 the Nursing program launched the first set of on-line courses. Teach 100% on-line . Also includes a clinical course Currently, students, if they choose, can attend on-line classes for the entire program.

3. On-Line Teaching History………… The average student is about the mid 30’s and takes an average course load of about 6-8 units on line. All course materials and handouts are provided on-line. Occasionally students will use the United States mail and fax for communication. Disabled students use all of the above methods of communication

4. Educators + Computers + Internet + WWW = Power Tool Reasons for this Powerful equation : “We are Currently witnessing the greatest explosion of change to affect the field of education in decades, perhaps in all history.” (Educator’s Internet Companion)

5. Forces Driving the Changes in Education Societal Events and Economic Trends Changes and Development in the Workplace Changes in Student Demographics Competition The Use of Computers Access to the Internet and WWW

6. Internet The Internet is a dynamic growing network of information experts and peers that are attached electronically and who share experiences with each other.

7. Definitions of the Internet Varies based on a person’s viewpoint: Social Definition: A community of people who use and develop the networks Applications Definition: A collections of resources that can be reached via the networks (Kelly, 1996)

8. Definitions…………. Technical Definition: A network of networks based on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP?IP). Protocol: Set of conventions specifying how data will be transmitted between computers. TCP/IP is the language that all computers on the internet use to communicate with each other IP: Specifies the way in which data will be communicated between computers on a network TCP: makes sure the data arrives correctly and in the proper order.

9. Access to the internet The internet is the world’s largest computer network connecting millions of computers all over the world The World Wide Web (web) is the fastest growing and most dynamic feature/system of the Internet. It is a special graphical interface that allows an individual to access and navigate (browse) the internet.

10. Access to the Internet Millions of people (increasing at a rate of one million per month) are estimated to have access to the internet Millions more are passionately involved in education and research

11. Primary Features of the Internet E-Mail - the most used feature News Group - File transfer Protocol (ftp) World Wide Web - fastest growing Multimedia

12. Terms The terms On-Line, E -education, and Web-based will be used interchangeably during this presentation

13. Use of Computers in Education Four major ways Computers are used with students: Programming Computer Literacy classes Vocational Applications Instruction

14. Types of Instruction Types of Instruction: Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) - the computer is used as a supplement to the course. Web-Based Instruction - the delivery of a course with the assistance of the WWW

15. Types of e-education Hybrid Video conferencing Online Multimedia Virtual Chats Televised/Cable/Sat Pod-casting

16. Use of Computers in Nursing Education Education: Formal nursing at a college or school: Web-based degree Satellite Tele/Cable Live videoconferencing Education in a hospital setting: Continuing education Computer mediated instruction Distance education (www.aacn.org) Patient education

17. Use of Computers in Nursing Education Research: CINAHL Database WebMD pubMed NIH Healthcare Information sites

18. Use of Computers in Nursing Education Practice: Patient Education Sites for various diseases Sites for wellness education

19. WWW The World Wide Web represents a new concept in technology. For example the library is on your desktop and a dictionary is at your fingertips.

20. Distance Education Distance Education (teaching and Learning) is a broad term that can refer to any sort of education in which the instruction occurs at one place and the educational Institution is somewhere else.

21. Distance Education Distance teaching and learning rely heavily on a “computer mediated communication” system. Focuses on person-to-person interaction Refers to the use of computer networks to allow learners in different geographical locations to interact with one another Interaction occurs either in synchronous (real-time) or asynchronous (delayed) mode via a text-based communication anytime anywhere

22. Distance Education……….. This structure also allows interaction by providing a combination of database and conferencing system that allow people to exchange messages and carry out asynchronous discussions in an organized manner.

23. Advantages of Distance Education It makes education possible for people who are separated geographically It allows the participation of people who cannot access the system all at the same time because of work, family, and responsibilities

24. Advantages of Distance Education Convenient Flexible Decreased fear of participation Cost savings in travel time, fuel use and parking

25. Barriers Decreased student face-to-face interactions Technical challenges Fewer instructors produce a less diverse viewpoints

26. Online Learning “On-line learning provides tremendous opportunities for providing pedagogical choices to learners that cannot be provided by a single professor in a classroom” (Arone, 2002).

27. Benefits of On-line Learning Learning is an active and engaged process. Rather than being told what to do or how to solve a problem, students are able to generate their own learning. On-line learning involves social negotiation. Students are able to challenge their thoughts, beliefs, perceptions, and existing knowledge by collaborating with other students thus assisting their cognitive development process.

28. Benefits of On-Line Learning On-line education provides a unique opportunity to use multiple representations of knowledge in terms of media. On-line students are given space and learn at their own pace, in their own way, and at their own time (night or day, week day or week end). On-line students assume more responsibility and are willing to do more rather than less work and learn according to their own styles.

29. On-Line Learner Characteristics Learner must be: Independent Ready Self-sufficient Exhibit several learning styles

30. Benefits of On-line Teaching The instructor’s role is that of a facilitator, guide or coach, probing students’ thinking and monitoring their thinking. The role changes from provider to instructional designer The role changes from information provider to facilitator and moderator. The instructor is less of an entertainer and a provider of information, The instructor is not a sage on the stage but a guide on the side

31. Benefits of On-Line Teaching As on-line students assume more responsibilities, the instructor is exposed to new experiences, which in turn brings on added excitement about teaching. Instructors get more revitalized in the midst of a heavier workload On-line instructors also delegate control to other resources and in fact encourage students to thoroughly search the web

32. Benefits of On-Line Teaching The instructor guides them to the important resources and let them discover what it is, so that they can construct their own knowledge in a constructive kind of a framework.

33. On-Line Environment To create an effective on-line environment four attributes are paramount (Agostinho et al.,1997); Providing opportunities to foster personal construction of knowledge Setting an appropriate context for the learning Facilitating collaboration amongst learners, through the use of Conversation

34. Stages in Planning an On-line course Determine if a demand exists Examine your mission Identify policies 9internal and external) that might affect the success Identify driving and restraining forces Determine how the program will be administered

35. Stages in Planning an On-line Course Build a broad base of support for the legitimacy and value of on-line education in your organization Examine the current programs for adaptability to an on-line model Evaluate the cost effectiveness Examine the availability of your communication system

36. Stages in Planning an On-line course Ensure that the support services meet the needs of on-line learners Select instructors carefully Develop an effective training program (both in technology and on-line teaching and learning). Think of space for training, equipment, conferencing Develop an evaluation plan

37. Stages in Planning an On-line course Determine if you will develop a program or selective courses Think of the methods of delivering the course –what platform will be used? What print material will be used? Anticipate how instructors and students will react Developing a course may take four to six months of planning, experiment with the technology, and developing

38. Development of a course Advanced work is needed in the following: Preparation Course Delivery Evaluation and Follow-up

39. Preparation of Instructor - Technical Faculty must: Be Computer literate Develop a computer filing system Develop communication techniques with your technical support staff

40. Preparation - Mental Faculty need: A burning desire to explore To be Flexible Openness to an alternative way of teaching Ability to work with a multidisciplinary team

41. Designing the Course Decide on the specific educational objectives Ask the question: What interactive activities are needed to fulfill the objectives?

42. Designing the Course Decide on the use or non-use of a main textbook or several textbooks Decide on the specific objectives Decide on interactive activities Design the weekly lessons and discussion topics

43. Designing the Course Prepare the syllabus –Online Pedagogy Include at least three assignments requiring a web search Include a web resource list Include case studies or scenarios relating to the subject matter

44. Designing the Course Weekly collaborative work such as discussions questions Include group/collaborative work requiring students to act in different roles Review various software applications with your web-master

45. Designing the Course Get all the necessary approvals and permissions Practice with the software Have many trial runs with the software Keep your fingers crossed

46. Creating an Online Syllabus Answer the following: What will be the primary method of communication? How will groups be formed? How will you response to the discussion responses? How will you address learning styles? How will you troubleshoot the technology? How will changes be made?

47. Creating an on-Line Syllabus Include the following: Technical and content instructions Include group/collaborative work requiring students to act in different roles Include group projects, web assignments, case studies, and weekly collaborative work such as discussions questions

48. Creating an On-line Syllabus Plan to write a minimum of 14-15 lessons in advance Include the course objectives Communication strategies Develop evaluation strategies

49. Creating an On-Line Syllabus Include at least three assignments requiring a web search Include a web resource list Include case studies or scenarios that provide application of the subject matter

50. Creating an on-Line Syllabus Develop evaluation strategies Collaborative work requiring students to act in different roles Design the weekly lessons and discussion topics

51. Course Development: Strategies Used for Collaboration E-mail use is encouraged from student to instructor but discouraged from student to student on matters relating to the class Live Chat Discussion: This tool is used synchronously during class sessions

52. Course Development: Strategies Used for Collaboration Weekly Assignments: Individual – Students search the web for articles and information on the weekly topics. Information is posted on the main discussion board for other students to comment, discuss and react. Students conduct interviews and post on the discussion board for their colleagues to comment, discuss and react.

53. Course Development: Strategies Used for Collaboration Group Collaboration – Structured Asynchronous Threaded Discussions: Mirrors a classroom discussion where the instructor maintains a public presence on a discussion board. The syllabus and assignments provide weekly discussion topics.

54. Course Delivery Students work in groups of four or five and rotate as team leaders every two weeks. Team leaders lead the on-line discussions, summarize the group members’ response to the discussion topics, and Team Leaders post a summary on the main discussion board for colleagues to discuss, comment and react

55. Course Delivery Students are able to create forum/ conferences on their group discussion board and respond to classmates on the main classroom discussion board Classmates receive participation points for reading, commenting, asking questions, and contributing to the topics. Student feedback is usually positive. Some students do not like to collaborate on projects and prefer to work alone.

56. Course Delivery Communication is crucial Addressing Learning styles Responding to weekly discussion topics Making changes Assigning groups Working with the web-master

57. Multimedia Windows Media-Producer, Movie Maker RealPlayer Camtasia Macromedia Flash QuickTime Captivate

58. Choosing Multimedia Methods Ease of use Availability Cross-platform compatibility Technical support Student competence Cost

59. Examples Windows Media Captivate Camtasia

60. On-Line Assessment Evaluation strategies: Contract fulfillment summary Field Log Web searches Timetable for posting class discussions Written papers Interviews with Home Health nurses Scavenger hunt for community agencies

61. Assessing Participants in an On-line Environment Surveys Quizzes Participation

62. Advantages for Faculty Faculty has control over the content, standards, design, and assessment of student learning Faculty give up control of the delivery of information Better monitoring of students Good data base of information

63. Advantages for Students Get updated information from the web Work at different rates Become more independent in learning Have a private interaction with the computer Can ask questions without fear Increase spelling and vocabulary skills

64. Advantages for Students Get updated information on research, education and practice from around the world Work at different rates Be more independent in learning

65. Advantage for Students Students have a private interaction with the computer Computers are infinitely patient . Students can ask questions without fear Web-Based instruction has a potential for increasing spelling skills and vocabulary

66. Lessons Learned Students prefer a more structured environment Students come with various levels of computer literacy. More time is needed for preparation and teaching All students get a chance to participate.

67. Lessons Learned Students prefer a structured environment Students have various levels of computer literacy All students get a chance to participate Faculty needs more up-front time for preparation and teaching Faculty and students have a data base of web sites

68. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Efficiency and Convenience: Distance Barriers are removed Student motivation: The learning environment is active and student centered

69. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Student motivation (cont’d): Socialization, personal interactions and peer pressure motivate students to achieve. Students can be inspired by knowing the labors and insights of their peers Shy or reserved students are motivated and empowered to contribute and be listened to.

70. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Effective Instructional Delivery : Information is automatically stored in written form Students share in evolving an automatically organized information base Procedures can be customized for different learning styles and abilities

71. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Improved Conditions for Learning: Conferencing software creates a collaborative learning environment Students have ample time to reflect on the problems before posting responses and interacting . Personality distractions and conflicts can be minimized

72. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Better Assessment of Student Progress Each student is accountable Students who are lagging behind can’t get lost

73. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Availability to students – 24/7 Participants- centered Anytime/ Anyplace

74. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Web-based teaching increases student faculty contact and makes the contact time and place independent. It is more time efficient and convenient. Socialization, personal interactions, and peer pressure motivate students to achieve Faculty give up control of the delivery and provider of information.

75. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Better assessment of student progress and class participation Students value communications with their instructors as much or even more than communications with their classmates (Mutually & Tello, 2000).

76. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Conditions for learning and the learning environment are certainly improved. Students are accountable for contributing to the class. Students produce better researched work.

77. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Shy or reserved students are motivated and even empowered to contribute. Information is automatically stored in written form. Distance barriers are removed

78. Reasons for Teaching Web-Based Courses Students from different gender, race or ethnic groups can work together on a project for the entire semester.

79. Reasons for Students to Take Web-Based Courses Students can work at different rates. Students can be motivated by knowing the labors of their peers. The environment is conducive to learning and it is student friendly. Students can ask questions without fear that the questions are silly or stupid.

80. Reasons for Students to Take Web-Based Courses Students are left with a database of information and web sites at the end of the semester. Students have more frequent access to their faculty member Students feel more comfortable probably because of less pressure to be rushed.

81. Reasons for Students to Take a Web-Based Course

82. Key Challenges: Assessment 1. What role do you want assessment to play in the on-line teaching and learning experience? 2. What kinds of assessment are appropriate given the distant learners and the objectives they need to attain? 3. Describe the assessment conducted in the classroom that gives the most useful information for planning upcoming instructions? 4. How are the results of assessment (formal or informal) shared with students?

83. Key Challenges: Accessibility - How do we continue to reach and educate students despite their location, schedules, cultural differences, or physical disabilities?

84. Key Challenges: Quality – How do we continue to provide a quality program with the budget environment and fiscal constraints? Equipment, graphics, digitization and multimedia can be expensive. How do we guard against information overload?

85. Key Challenges: Documenting Student Achievement What kinds of products will the learners generate? What supporting technology will be needed to digitalize and store these products? What levels of security and privacy for student work are appropriate? What provisions will the professor make for learners to capture their work (assuming they want to keep a local copy)?

86. Questions to consider: Assessment: What assessment process is used to ensure that the on-line student needs are met? What assessment process is used to ensure that the needs of instructor teaching on-line are met? What assessment process is used to ensure that the on-line instructor’s use of technology is reflected in the promotion process?

87. Questions to consider: Support What support structures ensure that instructor can effectively integrate technology into their teaching? What support structures ensure that students benefit from the use of technology in the instructional process? What support structures are used to ensure that the delivery system for instruction is reliable, consistent and accessible for both instructor and students?

88. Questions to Consider: Teaching How do you evaluate the effectiveness of use by the instructor? How do you know what instructor and students are doing? How is the instructor compensated for the extended workload?

89. Evaluation Formative – Receive information and judgments to assist in the revision and improvement of instructional programs technical system Summative – End of course summary course

90. Evaluation Evaluation strategies: Journals for hands on- application Web searches Deadlines for posting class discussions Reflection papers Interviews with home health nurses Class participation

91. Assessing Interactive Qualities of Distance Learning on-Line Courses Social rapport building activities created by the instructor Instructional designs for learning created by the instructor Levels of interactivity of teaching resources Impact of interactivity – changes in learner behaviors

92. Evaluation Course Evaluation -content and progress in meeting the objectives Instructor Evaluation Online course software and technology evaluation Program Evaluation Student Evaluation –depth of knowledge

93. Evaluation Educational effectiveness is measured by the assessment of student learning outcomes defined by the course objectives. Over ??% per cent of the students log on and post messages at least 4-5 times weekly. The instructor can track when students are reading, when they are writing, and a lot of things about what they are doing when they are on-line. The quality of the interaction can also be tracked.

94. Evaluation Develop a rubric for evaluating online course delivery Instructor’s evaluation of the course: Given to obtain realistic feedback on content and course delivery 11 Item questionnaire Given at the end of the class To be returned via instructor’s e-mail Used for updating the course

95. Issues for Discussion Instructor’s Workload Maintaining the human element Communication Assessing learning

96. Implications for Education Issues : Access for students and instructor Machine specification Flexibility Support for students and instructor Time management Hands- on experiences Course & system Integrity

97. Can We Afford to be left Behind? As educators we can either: allow students complete undirected access, learn what is available on the Internet and adjust our approaches to education ...or............

98. My thoughts……….. The World Wide Web represents a new concept in technology. For example the library is on your desktop and a dictionary is at your fingertips. We are no longer the knowledge authority, located in front of the classroom.

99. Future……. Don’t adopt the four Ws approach to the future (adapted from Cyrs, 2000): Wait for the next opportunity because we are not ready Watch to see what other organizations are doing Wonder how distance on-line learning could possibly be used Wish the whole thing would go away

100. My thoughts........... As the internet expands, nursing educators and students have the opportunity to ride the wave of this explosion and fully use the internet to enhance course preparation, research, practice, and course delivery.

101. Conclusion For many people, getting involved with multimedia internet, and new ways to deliver education will be the most exciting and rejuvenating experience of their professional life.

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