Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies
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Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two ERP studies. Michel Habib, M.D. University Hospital La Timone Marseilles. less than 50%. Clinical evidence. Experimental evid. Low level auditory defect. electrophysiological.

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Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two ERP studies

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Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexiaevidence from two ERP studies

Michel Habib, M.D.

University Hospital La Timone

Marseilles


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

less than 50%

Clinical evidence

Experimental evid.

Low level auditory defect

electrophysiological

Impaired phonological representations

Verbal short-term memory

Phonological awareness

Rapid automatized naming

Phonological impairment

Grapheme phoneme conversion

Reading impairment


Two auditory evoked potential studies

Two auditory evoked potential studies

  • Study 1 : early auditory evoked potentials in adults listening to voiced/unvoiced pairs : study of the time course of the EEG scalp response according to a method developed from intracranial cortical recordings (Liégeois-Chauvel et al.)

  • Study 2 : late potentials obtained in children before and after specific phonological training using stimuli previously used to explore the neural events accompanying cognitive integration of prosodic variations (Besson et al.)


Study 1 auditory evoked potenitals aep following perception of ba pa contrasts

Study 1 : auditory evoked potenitals (AEP) following perception of ba/pa contrasts

  • ba/ stimulus recorded from a female native French speaker ; /pa/ stimulus created by extracting the initial low frequency activity

  • five 8-minute blocks of 450 trials of one of two stimuli, followed by the same number of blocks and presentations of the other stimulus.

  • 14 male French-speaking adult dyslexics (23-49, mean 32.7) and 10 adult male controls (20-38, mean 26,5)

  • All dyslexics with a long history of difficulties in academic achievement, needs for specific speech therapist intervention, and persistent spelling difficulties

  • Raven PM38 ; normal intellectual function


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

/PA/

/BA/

100

100

240

260

370

Patterns of auditory dysfunction in compensated and persistent dyslexic adults

K. Giraud, C. Liégeois-Chauvel, M. Habib (In press)


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

14 dyslexic adults : reading, phonological, and spelling performances


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

240

180

B

80

120

VEOGL*

FPZ*

HEOGR*

FP1*

FP2*

AF7*

AF8*

AF4*

AF3*

F9*

Off resp.

F10*

F7*

F8*

F3*

F2*

F4*

F1*

FZ*

FT10*

FT9*

FT8*

FT7*

FC5*

FC6*

FC4*

FC1*

FC2*

FC3*

FCZ*

C1*

CZ*

C4*

C6*

T8*

C5*

C2*

T7*

C3*

C

CP1*

CPZ*

CP2*

CP3*

CP4*

CP5*

CP6*

TP8*

TP7*

P3*

P4*

PZ*

P8*

P7*

P10*

P9*

PO3*

PO4*

POZ*

PO7*

PO8*

PO9*

PO10*

O2*

O1*

OZ*

Non-dyslexics

A

ba

Figure 1


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

Primary auditory cortex (A1)

Voiced/unvoiced discrimination is represented by synchronized responses in A1 neuronal populations

Secondary auditory areas : integration of activity emanating from multiple frequency-specific areas in A1

V

?

?

?

Voicing perception is specific of anterior Heschl’s gyrus, whereas more posterior cortex, near PT, show no response to voicing onset (Steinschneider et al.,2004).

Neural representation of VOT is determined by the tonotopic organization of A1, with response peaks time-locked to voicing onset being observed in low-frequency regions (Steinschneider et al.,2003).


Results of aep study adult dyslexics

Results of AEP study (adult dyslexics)

  • In the auditory cortex of normal subjects, voiced and voiceless stop CV syllables are coded in a temporal fashion according to the sequential phonetic markers constituting the voiced-voiceless contrast.

  • After the N1/P2 complex, a negative component peaking at approximately 240 ms for non-dyslexics and 226 ms for Moderate dyslexics was observed for /ba/, but not /pa/,

  • Moderate dyslexics had AEP patterns not different from that of normals, except for absence of lateralization of the ba additional component

  • Severe dyslexics displayed two different AEP patterns :


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

A

B

170

80

180

*

220

177

228

80

257

*

70

*

350

120

280

Off resp.

Off resp. ?

C

Moderate dyslexics

Severe Profile I dyslexics

Severe Profile II dyslexics

Figure 2


Two patterns of abnormal aep in severe dyslexics

Two patterns of abnormal AEP in severe dyslexics

  • AEP Pattern I) is characterized by several additional peaks following the component at 230 ms. AEPs from these subjects did not clearly terminate before 400 ms and identification of an off-response was difficult.

  • AEP Pattern II) did not demonstrate a clear negative component at or near 240 ms for /ba/.

  • Although a more pronounced off-response was observed for /ba/, /ba/ and /pa/ AEPs were not distinguishable on the basis of the supplementary voiced-CV-specific N240 component for these subjects.


Conclusion study 1

Conclusion study 1

  • Adult outcome of childhood phonological dyslexia seems to depend on the presence or absence of auditory perceptual impairments, moderate dyslexics having normal temporal coding of speech signal

  • more than one dysfunctional mechanism may be implicated in severe persistent dyslexia:

    • one related to the processing of extraneous acoustic cues in the speech signal or to a “sluggishness” in auditory processing (AEP Pattern I);

    • another to an inability to code crucial, sequentially-occurring cues differentiating voiced/voiceless speech sounds (AEP Pattern II).


Conclusion study 11

Conclusion study 1

  • At least 3 neural auditory correlates of dyslexia

    • Normal cortical anatomo-functional organization, but less lateralized to the LH

    • abnormally synchronized recruitment of otherwise normal neuronal populations

    • Abnormal spatio-temporal organization


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

ERP protocol : « proso »

Incongruity resulting from F0 manipulation of the last word of sentences

Unmodified ending

Small incongruity

Large incongruity

Possible effect on semantic/prosodic integration of linguistic stimuli


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

solitaire

Un loup

se

faufile

entre les troncs

de la

forêt

grande

+ 35%

+ 120%


Dyslexics 12 children 9 11 y old

Dyslexics (12 children, 9-11 y-old)

RT and error percentage data


Controls 11 children 7 8 y old rt and error percentage data

controls(11 children, 7-8 y-old)RT and error percentage data


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

%errors

n.s.

***

**

PRE-

POST-training

%errors normal small incongruity large incongruity

Significant improvement of prosodic integration after phonological auditory training


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

N400

N400

P600

-10 µV

__ normal (206 trials)

__ small (135 trials)

__ large (200 trials)

-150 ms

1500ms

CONTROLS (N=11)

incongruency


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

artéfacts

N400

N400

N400

P600

P600

-10 µV

__ normal (169 trials)

__ small (103 trials)

__ large (138 trials)

-150 ms

1500ms

PRE-TRAINING (N=11)


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

-10 µV

-150 ms

1500ms

POST-TRAINING (N=11)

__ normal (213 trials)

__ small (119 trials)

__ large (241 trials)


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

P600

-10 µV

-150 ms

__ pre-training (138 trials)

__ post-training (241 trials)

1500ms

Comparison pre / post training

LARGE INCONGRUENCY (N=10)


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

N400

P600

-10 µV

-150 ms

__ pré-entraînement (169 essais)

__ post-entraînement (213 essais)

1500ms

FIGURE 14

Comparaison pré / post entraînement

MOT CONGRUENT (N=10)


Theoretical background

Theoretical background

  • Dyslexia in the context of developmental neuroscience ; abnormal neuronal organization, connectivity or plasticity?

  • Dyslexia and neuroimaging ; morphological (mMRI), neurocognitive (PET and fMRI), neurofunctional (early ERP - auditory/visual)

  • Dyslexia and recovery of function : combining clinical evidence of improvement with repeated neuroimaging


Neuroimaging and recovery of dyslexia 1

neuroimaging and recovery of dyslexia (1)

  • Functional imaging before and after specific training :

Temple et al., 2003

Simos et al., 2002

Areas non activated before training

Areas of greater activation in controls

Beforeafter

training

Aylward et al., 2003

pre

post


Neuroimaging and recovery of dyslexia 2

neuroimaging and recovery of dyslexia (2)

  • Long-term neural correlates of recovery (Shaywitz et al., 2003)

compensated (AIR) vs persistent (PPR)


Neuroimaging and recovery of dyslexia 3

neuroimaging and recovery of dyslexia (3)

  • Auditory ERP correlates of reading improvement (Kujala et al., 2001)


Different patterns of improvement in phonological dyslexia evidence from two erp studies

Heterogeneity of temporal processing of speech in developmental dyslexia revealed by Auditory Evoked Potentials


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