Next generation science with inelastic x ray scattering
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Next Generation Science with Inelastic X-ray Scattering . Clement Burns Western Michigan University. Thanks to: Yuri Shyvd’ko, Ercan Alp, Ayman Said (APS) Peter Abbamonte (UIUC) Zahid Hasan (Princeton). Six Challenges for Physics. National Research Council Review of Physics (2001)

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Next Generation Science with Inelastic X-ray Scattering

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Next generation science with inelastic x ray scattering

Next GenerationScience with Inelastic X-ray Scattering

Clement Burns

Western Michigan University

Thanks to:

Yuri Shyvd’ko, Ercan Alp, Ayman Said (APS)

Peter Abbamonte (UIUC)

Zahid Hasan (Princeton)


Six challenges for physics

Six Challenges for Physics

National Research Council Review of Physics (2001)

  • Developing quantum technologies

  • Understanding complex systems

  • Applying physics to biology

  • Creating new materials

  • Exploring the universe

  • Unifying the forces of nature


Energy momentum relationships

Energy - Momentum Relationships


Focus with x ray mirrors small beam

Focus with X-ray Mirrors Small Beam

  • High flux for experiments

    • IXS flux hungry technique

      • >1016P=photon/sec-0.1% bandwidth

  • Small beam size (<4 x 40 mm2)

    • High pressure work

    • Nanomaterials

    • New materials

      • E.g., MgB2

    • Devices

    • Surfaces

    • Environmental

  • But… start 2014

NSLS II

http://www.esrf.eu/UsersAndScience/Publications

/Highlights/2002/Imaging/IMA8/fig103

http://www.physics.umd.edu/mfuhrer/images/longNT.jpg


Science with 0 1 mev resolution

Science with 0.1 meV Resolution


Need for higher resolution

Need for Higher Resolution

Pilla et al, PRL 85, 2136 (2000)

DNA Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 214909 2005

DNA Krisch PRE 73, 061909 2006

DHO

Memory Fun.


Science at 0 1 mev

Science at 0.1 meV

  • 1 meV resolution does not mean one can study excitations with an energy of 1 meV

    • Large background from elastic

  • High resolution and good elastic rejection

From Yuri Shvyd’ko


Possible science

Possible Science

  • Low energy excitations in polymers

    • Related to wetting, adhesion..

  • Lipid membranes

  • Mapping superconducting band gap with phonons

  • Dynamics of glasses

Inoue, PRL 95, 056102 (2005)

Reinstäder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 108107 (2004)


0 1 mev science

0.1 meV Science

From Ruocco


Science with 1 mev resolution

Science with 1 meV Resolution


Some ideas at 1 mev

Some Ideas at 1 meV

  • Extreme environments – low temperature, high field, ultrahigh pressure

  • Small samples

    • Down to nanoparticle size

    • (High pressure)

  • Surface phonons

    • Grazing incidence requires small beam

      • 10’ yields ~1.5 mm on sample

    • Most current techniques require high vacuum

  • Exotic excitations

    • Orbitons

  • Resonant scattering?

  • Pulse probe technique – phonons in excited states


Extreme environments

Extreme Environments

Levitated Liquids

  • High pressure

  • High Temperature

  • High magnetic fields

  • Low temperature

    • Heating issues

Sinn, Science 299, 2047 (2003)


Small samples

Small Samples

  • New materials – e.g., phonons in MgB2

  • Samples/regions in crystals - Pu

  • Really small ?

    • 100 nm? Smaller?

    • Nanotubes?

Wong et. al, Science 301, 1071 (2003)


Surface phonon scattering

Surface Phonon Scattering

  • Thin films (need to compare to e.g., He scattering)

  • Buried interfaces?

  • Study 2-d behavior liquids

Murphy et. al, PRL 95, 256104 (2005)


Case for medium resolution

Case for Medium Resolution


Science at medium resolution

Science at Medium Resolution

  • Electronic excitations

    • Plasmons, excitons, spinons, holons, Mott gap, band transitions, superconducting gap….

    • Non-resonant scattering – easy comparison to (q,)

    • Resonant scattering –site and state selective

  • Soft x-ray edges at high energy

  • Time evolution of systems

  • Study highly correlated electron systems, Mott-Hubbard insulators, organic semiconductors, regular metals, …new systems everyday


Scattering cross section

Scattering Cross Section

From Platzman and Isaacs, PRB 57, 11107 (1998)

Non-resonant Scattering


Medium resolution work

Medium Resolution Work

IXS Organic Molecular Crystal

Spinon-holon

Yang et al., PRL 98, 036404 (2007)

Y. Cai, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006

June et al., PRL 137402 (2004)

  • www.afrlhorizons.com/Briefs/Jun04/ML0319.html

Kodituwakku et al, submitted to PRL


Medium resolution rixs opportunities

Medium Resolution RIXS Opportunities


Resonant scattering energies

Resonant Scattering Energies


Medium resolution monochromator improvements

Medium Resolution – Monochromator Improvements

  • Tom Toellner, APS

  • Four bounce

  • High efficiency

  • Wide energy range


Medium resolution spectrometer detector improvements

Medium Resolution SpectrometerDetector Improvements

  • Line detector

    • Huotari et al., ESRF

    • Shvyd’ko APS

    • Improve counts

      • Larger solid angle

    • Improve resolution

      • Reduces geometric effect

    • Other energies?

S. Huotari et al., Journal of Synchrotron

Radiation20, 467-472 (2005).


Why do we need nsls ii

Why do we need NSLS-II?

  • Smaller samples can be studied

    • New materials, high pressure

  • Many, many systems to look at

  • Higher resolution - necessary for many cases…


Low resolution options important

Low Resolution Options Important!

  • Dynamics on attosecond time scales

From Peter Abbamonte


Low adjustable resolution

Low / Adjustable Resolution

  • Dipole forbidden d-d excitations

Larson et al., PRL 99, 026401 (2007)


Observations

Observations

  • No one cares how good the NSLS-II synchrotron is ….

    • They care about the quality of science

  • Many good ideas for IXS

    • Throw out most of them

  • Use strengths of NSLS-II

  • Develop early – detectors, etc.

  • Room for future ideas

  • Adjustable resolution

  • Support

    • Sample orientation/alignment

    • Characterization (other departments?)


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