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The Safe and Healthy School: Issues to Consider When Planning School Construction and Renovation August 26, 2009. Who we are. Mr. Larry Morgan, Director Chris Cosper, AIA, Assistant Director. Our Vision.

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The Safe and Healthy School:

Issues to Consider When Planning School Construction and Renovation

August 26, 2009


Who we are

  • Mr. Larry Morgan, Director

  • Chris Cosper, AIA, Assistant Director


Our Vision

  • The Educational Design Institute – in collaboration with students, parents, educators, school administrators, school boards and communities – will promote and encourage the creation of safe, accessible, flexible, and developmentally-appropriate learner-centered environments that help students learn and teachers teach.


Our Goals

  • Establish EDI as a source for school planning and design issues through regional workshops, conferences, and publications.

  • Establish EDI as a collaborative partner with the Mississippi Department of Education Office of Safe and Orderly Schools and progressive Mississippi architecture and engineering design firms.

  • Promote and update the Mississippi School Design Guidelines, which contain information concerning the design, construction, and maintenance of safe and effective school facilities.


Design does matter


Design does matter

  • Six key benefits to properly designed buildings:

    • Better student performance

    • Increased average daily attendance

    • Increased teacher satisfaction and retention

    • Reduced operating costs

    • A positive influence on the environment, and

    • Increased opportunities for using the facility itself as a teaching tool

    • Source: Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC)


What does EDI do?

  • Provide training on the use of the Mississippi School Design Guidelines (MSDG)

  • Conduct facility assessments

  • Suggest ways to improve facilities, including master planning studies and preliminary designing

  • In conjunction with Safe and Orderly Schools, conduct safety audits

  • Keep school districts informed concerning K-12 education design trends


Mississippi School

Design Guidelines


Food Preparation / Cafeteria

  • Switching to healthier foods does not require many changes to kitchens or cafeterias.

  • Some limited physical plant decisions:

    • Replacing fryers with “Combi” ovens (i.e combination oven/steamers)

    • Number and length of serving lines (to provide variety)

    • Drink coolers


Combi Oven/Steamers

  • Looks like a convection oven

  • Some early ones were difficult to use, but newer ones have better controls

  • Food service vendors are providing meals designed for Combi units

  • Gas (must be under hood) or three-phase electric

  • Can be expensive

    • Grants have been available


Combi Oven/Steamers


Combi Oven/Steamers


Elementary School P.E. Facility

  • Physical education class

  • Other activities as space and schedule permit

    • May include stage for programs


Elementary School P.E. Facility


Elementary School – Renovated Gym


Multi-Purpose P.E. Facility

Rubberized floor generally considered best multi-purpose surface


High School / Middle School Gymnasium

  • Physical education class

  • Mississippi public school team sports

    • Basketball

    • Volleyball


High School / Middle School Gymnasium


Playgrounds

  • Safe surfaces

  • Clear boundaries and sight lines

  • Shade

  • Access to water


Playgrounds – Shade

Photos by BYO Playground

www.byoplayground.com


Playgrounds – Shade


Playgrounds – Shade

Photos by Landscape Structures

www.playlsi.com


Other Wellness Options

  • Walking track

  • School employee wellness center


Security Theory

  • Deterrence – discourage unauthorized actions

  • Detection – recognize unauthorized actions

  • Delay – slow unauthorized actions

  • Response – react to unauthorized actions

From July 2009 School Planning & Management


Security – Safe Schools

  • SS1 – Access Control

  • SS2 – Natural Surveillance

  • SS3 – Territorial Reinforcement

  • SS4 – Natural Disaster Safe Zones

  • SS5 – Secure Traffic and Parking


SS1 – Access Control

  • Control pedestrian entry

  • Control vehicular entry

  • Minimize entrances

  • Control roof access

  • Eliminate hiding places


SS1 – Access Control


SS2 – Natural Surveillance

  • Main School Entrance

  • Parking Areas

  • Hallway Surveillance

  • School Restrooms

  • Cafeteria

  • Playgrounds

  • Student Gathering Spaces


Remove Visual Obstacles

  • Remove visual obstructions, where possible

    • For example, limb trees to 8’-0” minimum

  • Consider low walls and shrubs

  • Use fences that can be seen through

  • Use CCTV where necessary


SS4 – Natural Surveillance

  • Main School Entrance

  • Parking Areas

  • Hallway Surveillance

  • School Restrooms

  • Cafeteria

  • Playgrounds

  • Student Gathering Spaces


SS4 – Natural Disaster Safe Zones

  • Hurricane – wind and storm surge

  • Tornado and other wind events

  • Hail and lightning

  • Flooding

  • Forest fire


SS5 – Secure Traffic and Parking

  • Define parking zones

  • Consider surveillance of traffic and parking areas

  • Use safe surfaces and paving techniques


Safe Routes to School

  • SR2S Funds available

  • Community Block Grants also available

  • Repair sidewalks, build sidewalks, route buses away from pedestrians, and other improvements as necessary

  • Improve fitness and air quality


School Nurse

Photos by Methacton School District

www.methacton.org


School Nurse’s Duties

  • Immunizations

  • Vision and hearing screenings

  • Providing first aid for minor and major physical injuries

  • Coordinating student referrals with community agencies

  • Notifying parents of children’s health

  • Dispensing student medication

  • Acting as an instructor or resource for health education


Nurse’s Office – Elementary School

  • Waiting area

  • Office for nurse

    • With record storage

  • Rest area with beds

    • One cot for every 300 students, can be separated by curtains

  • Consultation office

  • Examination room

  • Restroom(s)


Nurse’s Office – Elementary School


Nurse’s Office – High School

  • Waiting area

  • Office for nurse

    • With record storage

  • Separate rest area for each sex

    • One cot for every 300 students, can be separated by curtains

  • Consultation office

  • Examination room

  • Separate restrooms for each sex


Nurse’s Office – High School


Nurse’s Office Features

  • Internal hallways should be 6’-0” wide minimum to accommodate gurneys

  • Doors to the exam room and to the exterior should be 4’-0” wide with offset hinges

  • Ideally, emergency access is provided directly to the exterior

  • HVAC system should be separate from other school HVAC systems


From MSDG

  • Ability to Quarantine

  • Distinct Entry

  • Easy Emergency Access

  • Near Administration

  • Removed from the Learning Environment


Nurse’s Office Summary

  • Privacy and confidentiality are primary concerns

  • Easy to clean and sanitize

  • Comfortable – natural lighting, low noise levels, soothing colors


Drinking Fountains

  • Plumbing Code will dictate minimum number based on school square footage

  • Should be convenient and accessible

  • Code compliance can be tricky


HVAC

  • Stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

  • Modern expectations of thermal comfort are high

  • Largely responsible for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

  • Complex topic


HVAC – Zoning

  • Zoning – how a building is divided

  • Essentially, each zone has its own thermostat

  • Ideally, each classroom should be its own zone


Lighting

  • Daylighting

  • Artificial lighting

    • Quality

    • Quantity

    • Fixtures


Daylighting

  • Free

  • Shown to improve test scores

  • Heat gain (or loss) is an issue


Artificial lighting

  • Source

  • Fixture

  • Lamp (i.e. bulb)


Quality

  • Color temperature

  • Color Rendering Index (CRI)


Lighting quantity

  • lux fc

  • Support Spaces 50 5

  • Corridors 100 10

  • Foyers, Dining Spaces 200 20

  • Libraries, Classrooms 300 30

  • Offices, Kitchens 500 50

  • Drafting Rooms 750 75

  • Electronic Assembly1000100

  • Highest Level Tasks2000200


Lighting fixtures


Acoustics

  • Clarity of speech

  • Noise control

  • Architectural acoustics for performance


Clarity of speech

  • Direct sound path

  • Reflected sound (i.e. reverberation)

  • Interfering noise


Noise control

  • Within a space

  • From one space to another


Architectural acoustics

  • For performance spaces

  • Ideal reverb times vary with type of music

  • The ideal reverb time for speech is less than that for music

Photo by BAi Consultants

www.baiaustin.com


EDI Website & Blog

www.edi.msstate.edu


Thank you


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