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Seminar One Introduction to Safety Case. Date 11 April 2006. Seminar One is a basic introduction to Safety Case and the MHF Regulations 2000. Its timing has been triggered by the commencement of Round 2 Licencing activity It has been developed for the following purposes:

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Seminar One is a basic introduction to Safety Case and the MHF Regulations 2000. Its timing has been triggered by the commencement of Round 2 Licencing activity

It has been developed for the following purposes:

To provide a brief and simple overview of the main parts of a safety case

To be suitable for new MHF Operators

Examples of incidents

Context of MHF Regulations

Outlines the reason for a safety case

why is a safety case needed1
Why is a Safety Case Needed?

Coode Island, Australia – storage terminal fire, August 1991, no injury.

why is a safety case needed2
Why is a Safety Case Needed?

Longford, Australia – explosion and fire, September 1998, 2 dead, led to the development of Victorian MHF legislation

why is a safety case needed3
Why is a Safety Case Needed?

Texas City, USA – fire and explosion, March 2005, 15 dead, over 170 injured

why is a safety case needed4
Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Entschede, Holland – fireworks factory explosion, May 2000, 22 dead, 947 injured
why is a safety case needed5
Tosco Avon Refinery

23rd February,1999.

Crude Unit, Tosco Corporation’s Avon oil refinery, Martinez, California.

Workers were attempting to replace piping attached to an online 150-foot-tall distillation column

Piping released naphtha which ignited. The flames engulfed fire workers who were located at different heights on the column

Four men were killed and one seriously injured.

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
why is a safety case needed6
Tosco Avon Ref. – Contributing Causes

1. Tosco Avon refinery management did not conduct an MOC review of operational changes that led to excessive corrosion rates in the naphtha piping.

Above design rates

Feed contained high water levels

Prolonged operation on LV bypass valve caused ineffective line isolation

2. The crude unit corrosion control program was inadequate.

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
why is a safety case needed7
Why is a Safety Case Needed?

Bhopal, India – Dec 1984

Toxic release – methyl isocyanate

3000 to 8000 deaths, $0.3b to $3b

why is a safety case needed8
Why is a Safety Case Needed?

Buncefield Incident – 11th December 2005

(Currently under investigation by UK HSE)

40 injured, no fatalities

why is a safety case needed9
There is a need for specific control of major hazards due to:

Changing scale and complexity of specific facilities

Housing encroachment into MHF buffer zones

Changing community perceptions

Loss of Corporate Knowledge associated with ageing plant and mobile workforce

Range of major accidents that have occurred

Prescriptive approach has proven inappropriate

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
why do we need a safety case
This has led to Regulations where:

the Operator is expected to know what technical and human activities occur

The Operator decides on the appropriate means of major hazard control for the facility, and prepares a SC explaining this

The Regulator assesses and audits performance adequacy against the SC

Why do we need a Safety Case?
background the mhf regulations

Safety Case Submissions Rd 2 2007

Safety Case Submissions Rd 1 2002

Introduction of MHF Regulations Jul 00

Longford Royal Commission Report Jul 99

Longford Explosion Sep 98

Australian National Standard for Control of MHFs 96

Coode Island Fire 91

Background - The MHF Regulations

Flixborough 74, Seveso 76, Bhopal 84, Piper Alpha 88

overview key principles of mhf regs
Focus on major hazards (catastrophic events involving Sched 1 materials i.e. high consequence and low frequency)

Proactive risk based approach

Places the responsibility on the facility Operator

Facility Operator actively has to demonstrate safe operation

Overview - Key Principles of MHF Regs
overview key principles of mhf regs1
Overview - Key Principles of MHF Regs

Consultation with different parties required at all critical stages

Addresses both on-site and off-site safety

Regulator ‘ review’ of this, tied to a licence

overview focus of mhf regulations
Overview - Focus of MHF Regulations

Increasing risk



Very high risks

should already

be eliminated

after risk

assessment within

SC process

Relative Frequency of Occurrence

OHS risks



Focus of MHF Regulations is

high consequence (catastrophic)

but low frequency incidents

Consequence - Severity

victorian acts regulations
Victorian Acts/Regulations

Main Parts

OH&S Act

Manual Handling

Certification Regulations

Confined Spaces Regulations

Issue Resolution

Asbestos Regulations

Noise Regulations

Haz Substances Regulations

Incident Notification

Plant Regulations

Major Hazard

Facility Regulations

DG Act



Dangerous Goods (S&H) Regulations

HCDG Regulations

overview mhf regulations
Objective of the Regulations

To provide for safe operation of major hazard facilities in order to reduce the likelihood of a major incident (MI) occurring and to reduce the consequences to health and safety and damage to property

Overview – MHF Regulations
overview mhf regulations1
Specific parts of the MHF Regulations for this seminar series are:

Safety management system (R301)

Hazard identification (R302)

Safety assessment (R303)

Control measures (R304)

Emergency planning (R305)

Review of risk controls (R306, R404)

Consultation - HSRs, employees, community (R501, R505, OHS Act)

Overview – MHF Regulations
what is the safety case
The SC must address all hazardous events that could result in:

An uncontrolled incident that involves schedule 1 materials; and

Poses a serious and immediate risk to health and safety

What is the Safety Case?
what is the safety case1
A Safety Case is a detailed document that outlines:

hazard identification and control mechanisms in place to prevent and mitigate all MIs for the facility

the types of safety studies undertaken

the results obtained from such studies

the management arrangements in place

to ensure the continued safety of the facility, its

people and the surrounding community

What is the Safety Case?
what must the safety case do
Document the state of safety arrangements for the facility

Demonstrate to the satisfaction of WorkSafe, through content and supporting material, that:

the operator knows what technical and human activities occur

how hazards are managed

how safety will be managed in the event of an emergency

What must the Safety Case do?

What must the Safety Case do? (cont’d)

Identify methods to be used for monitoring and reviewing all activities for continuous improvement of the safety arrangements of the facility over its lifetime.

main components of a safety case
Summary of the SMS prepared under R301

Documentation of the Safety Assessment -outcome R302, R303

Schedule 4 Information

- Facility Description

- Safety Information

Main Components of a Safety Case
main components of a safety case1
Summary of SMS prepared under R301

The Safety Case must contain a summary of the SMS elements including:

Safety policy and objectives

Organisation and structure

Operational controls

Means to achieve Part 3 (Safety Duties) and 5 (Consulting, Informing) compliance

Management of change

Principles and standards

Performance monitoring


Ref Sched 2

Main Components of a Safety Case
main components of a safety case2
Documentation of the Safety Assessment – R302, R303

Identification of all the major incidents which could occur.

Identification of all the hazards that could cause or contribute to causing a major incident.

Risk Assessments.

Methods and criteria for identifying and assessing the above.

Main Components of a Safety Case
main components of a safety case3
Process or activity description

Schedule 1 and Dangerous Goods materials and their characteristics

Facility layout drawings

Future facility changes

Plan of facility and surrounding area.

Main Components of a Safety Case

Schedule 4 Information - Facility Description

main components of a safety case4
Schedule 4 Information -Safety Information

Control measures that prevent or limit consequences of MI’s

Performance monitoring

Safety Management System cross reference

Incorporation of safety and reliability into design and construction

Incident history – last 5 years

Main Components of a Safety Case

More on Safety Assessment follows…..

safety assessment
Safety Assessment

Hazard identification – for determining MIs

Risk reduction studies – for determining controls

Emergency scenarios– for training and controls

Risk evaluation - for determining risk acceptability

Recommendations and review – for continuous improvement

Main Components of Safety Assessment

safety assessment1
Safety Assessment

Hazard Identification

  • Using Hazop/What If, RA and specialist reviews, the MI’s and their causes (of MIs) are determined

Process Hazard Identification

(HAZOP/What If)

Risk Assessment (RA)


Unit Technical Review Input

(Specialist Review)

Major Incident Event


safety assessment2
Risk Assessment

Analysis and Assessment of the hazards and potential MIs on site using

LOPA Risk matrix


Provides a more detailed analysis of causes/frequency/outcomes/controls for each identified MI

Can enable risk offsite to be assessed

Enables comparison of risk reduction options

Safety Assessment
layer of protection analysis











Layer of Protection Analysis

Safety Assessment

  • Analysing the safety measures and controls that are between an uncontrolled release and the worst potential consequence - risk reduction study
safety assessment3
The information for assessment can be presented as a bow-tie diagram.

Mitigative Controls

Preventative Controls








Safety Assessment
safety assessment4
Safety Assessment

Preventative Controls

Mitigative Controls









emergency plans
Promote preparation for response to emergencies

Ensure necessary equipment available and maintained

Ensure personnel are trained and prepared to respond

Identify communication methods required

Identify community resources required

Consultation with emergency services and local council

Emergency Plans
emergency incident scenario plans
Analysis of the explosion, heat flux for the pool fires or jet fires or toxic consequence levels to determine fire fighting access and to identify affected impact areas

Determination of the fire water and foam requirements for extinguishing the fire and/or protecting affected equipment

Available as a resource for training in specific scenarios

Emergency Incident Scenario Plans
Occupied Buildings Risk Assessment

Analysis of the impact of MIs on occupied buildings

Mainly risks (due to flame impingement, explosions, toxic gas) from other buildings/operations

What Else is in a Safety Case Report?

Continuous Improvement

Opportunities to reduce risk are identified

Recommendations are assessed and prioritised

An action plan is developed and implemented SFARP

What Else is in a Safety Case Report?

sc review revise
Operators must review (and revise) hazard identifications, risk assessments and control measures to ensure risks remain reduced to SFARP:

at the direction of the Authority

prior to modification

after a major incident

when a control measure is found to be deficient

Upon licence renewal or at least every 5 years

New information becomes available regarding possible MI hazards previously unknown

SC Review & Revise
The SC must demonstrate adequacy of all Safety Duties required by the MHF regulations

Safety Duties are ongoing requirements

An Operator of a major hazard facility who fails to comply with the MHF regulations could jeopardise the continuation of their licence.

sources of additional information
Occupational Health and Safety (Major Hazard Facilities) Regulations 2000, Victoria

Major Hazard Facilities Regulations – Guidance Notes, WorkSafe

WorkSafe Victoria

NSW Major Industry Hazard Advisory Papers 1 to 9

Centre for Chemical Process Safety

UK Health and Safety Executive,

Sources of Additional Information