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MEDICAL MEASURESENGINEERING MEASURESLEGISLATIVE MEASURES. MEDICAL MEASURESPre-placement Medical ExaminationDone at the time of employmentFor proper job placement of the worker according to his physical

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3. MEDICAL MEASURES Pre-placement Medical Examination Done at the time of employment For proper job placement of the worker according to his physical & mental capabilities

4. Periodical Medical Examination To maintain people in suitable work To identify workers showing undue susceptibility to a particular type of exposure To evaluate effectiveness of preventive measures

5. Biological Monitoring Periodic examination of blood or urine specimens to detect excessive absorption of a potentially toxic substance Biological Limit Values (BLVs)

6. Environmental Monitoring Collection and analysis of environmental samples To limit exposure to levels that impose no serious threat to health during a normal lifetime of work

7. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) Airborne concentrations of chemical substances to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect (ACGIH-USA) Threshold Limit Value – Time Weighted Average (TLV - TWA) : 8HD / 40HW Threshold Limit Value – Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV - STEL) : 15M x 4/D Threshold Limit Value – Ceiling (TLV - C)

8. Are those concentrations that in case of daily exposure at work for 8 hrs throughout the entire working life will not cause any disease or deviation from a normal state of health (Russian) Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MACs)

9. Medical & Health Care Services First Aid Services Medical Care of Occupational Diseases Immunization against Communicable Diseases

10. Notification of Occupational Diseases Maintenance & Analysis of Records Health Education & Safety Training

11. Supervision of Working Environment Good Ventilation General Cleanliness Wholesome Drinking Water Washing & Toilet Facilities ( 1: 25 ) Provision of Canteen ( > 250 employees )

12. Effective Temperature 70 - 80° F Relative Humidity 55-60% Adequate Lighting Precision work 50-75 foot candles Regular work 6-12 foot candles Corridors & passages 0.5 foot candles

13. Health Protection Measures Nutritional Program/ Supplements Mental Health Measures for women & children MCH & Family Welfare Services Recreation Facilities

14. Personal Protective Measures Masks, Aprons, Gloves Helmets, Safety shoes, Gum boots, Goggles, Screens Ear plugs, Ear muffs Barrier Creams

15. ENGINEERING MEASURES Design of Building The type of floor, walls, height, ceiling, roof, doors and windows, cubic space etc. should receive attention at design stage

16. Mechanization / Automation The plant should be mechanized to the fullest possible extent to reduce the hazard of contact with harmful substances Hand-mixing is replaced by mechanical devices Harmful substances like acids etc. can be conveyed from one place to another through pipes

17. Substitution Replacement of a harmful material by a harmless one, or one of lesser toxicity Substitution of white phosphorus by phosphorus sesquisulphide in the match industry, which resulted in the elimination of necrosis of jaw (Phossy jaw) Use of zinc or iron paints in place of harmful lead paints

18. Enclosure Enclosing the harmful materials and processes to prevent the escape of dust and fumes into the factory atmosphere e.g. grinding machinery

19. Isolation To isolate the offensive process in a separate building so that workers not directly connected with the operation are not exposed to the hazard Certain operations can be done at night in the absence of the usual staff

20. Control at Source Dusts can be controlled at the point of origin by water sprays e.g. wet drilling of rocks Inclusion of a little moisture in the materials will make the processes of grinding, sieving and mixing comparatively dust-free Wetting of floors and work benches in lead industry

21. General Ventilation Proper ventilation is needed for the control of noxious vapors, fumes and dusts and prevention of fatigue and industrial accidents A minimum of 500 cu.ft of air space is needed for each worker

22. Local Exhaust Ventilation The breathing zone of workers is kept free of dangerous dusts & fumes Dusts, fumes & other injurious substances are trapped and extracted “at source” before they escape into the factory atmosphere Dusts, gases & fumes are drawn into a hood by suction and are conveyed through ducts into collecting units

23. Good Housekeeping Walls, ceilings and passages should be white- washed at least once a year OR painted with water washable paint once in 3 years and washed at least once in 6 months Dust which settles down on the floor, ledges, beams, machinery and other stationery objects should be promptly removed by vacuum cleaners or by wetting agents Masks, gloves, aprons and other protective equipment should be kept clean and in a state of good repair

24. LEGISLATIVE MEASURES The Factories Act The factories act covers the matters relating to Health, Safety & Welfare of the workers Lighting, Ventilation & Temperature Standards Hours of work day (not more than 48 hours per week & 9 hours per day) Employment of young persons (< 14yrs) Treatment of Waste & Effluent to render them safe

25. Social Security Act (PESSI-1965) Applicable to factories employing 10 or more employees Deduction from the employees (7% of the total wages) Benefits to the employees Medical Sickness Disablement Maternity Dependents Benefit

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