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The Nervous System. Nervous System. Network of connected cells, tissue, and organs Controls thoughts, movement, life processes Quick responses Ex: Sunny day  pupils shrinking. CNS and PNS. Neurons. AKA: Nerve Cells Transfer electrical impulses to/from the brain 3 Main Parts

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Nervous system
Nervous System

  • Network of connected cells, tissue, and organs

  • Controls thoughts, movement, life processes

  • Quick responses

    • Ex: Sunny day  pupils shrinking



Neurons
Neurons

  • AKA: Nerve Cells

  • Transfer electrical impulses to/from the brain

  • 3 Main Parts

  • Cell body: contains nucleus and organelles

  • Dendrites: branches that receive messages from neighboring cells

  • Axon: extension that carries messages away from the cell body


Resting potential
Resting Potential

  • Defined: Neuron at rest

  • Neuron Exterior:

    • Positive charge

    • Mainly Na+ outside the cell

  • Neuron Interior:

    • Negative charge (from various proteins)

    • K+ inside the cell


Action potential
Action Potential

  • Defined: Electrical impulse is triggered

  • Front end of impulse

    • Channels open and allow Na+ to enter the cell

    • Negative impulse attracted towards positive Na+

  • Back end of impulse

    • Channels open to allow K+ to exit the cell

    • Interior returns to normal

  • Impulse pulled along by the changing of electrical charges



Na+

Na+

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negative impulse

K+

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Na+

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Synapse
Synapse

  • Defined: Gap between neurons

  • Problem: Impulse cannot cross the gap

  • Solution: Impulse converted into chemical molecules (neurotransmitters)

  • Steps:

    • Impulse reaches neuron’s end

    • Vesicle releases neurotransmitters

    • Neurotransmitters attach to neighboring neuron

    • New impulse created


Impulse stimulates a vesicle, which contains neurotransmitters

Vesicle exits the cell and dissolves

impulse

Start of another cell

End of one cell


Neurotransmitters stimulate a new impulse neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

cross the synapse and attach to receptors of a neighboring neuron

impulse

impulse

Start of another cell

End of one cell


Brain neurotransmitters

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….

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Feet


Motor neurons reach the muscles
Motor neurons reach the muscles… neurotransmitters

and causes MOVEMENT!


Kobe kuiz
Kobe Kuiz neurotransmitters

  • What is the function of the nervous system?

  • List the 3 main parts and describe the purpose of the 3 main parts of a neuron.

  • Describe the internal and external environment of a neuron in resting potential.

  • What is a synapse and why is it a problem for neurons?

  • What are the roles of the following during an action potential?

    • NA+

    • K+

    • Neurotransmitters


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