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Mobile Commerce in Taiwan and China. Professor Eldon Li September 2004. Mobile Commerce Categories. Mobile Communication. Mobile Entertainment. Mobile Transaction. Mobile Information. Cell phone. Music. Payment. Financial Info. SMS. Image. Shopping. LBS. Games.

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Mobile commerce in taiwan and china l.jpg

Mobile Commerce in Taiwan and China

Professor Eldon Li

September 2004


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Mobile Commerce Categories

Mobile

Communication

Mobile

Entertainment

Mobile

Transaction

Mobile

Information

Cell phone

Music

Payment

Financial Info

SMS

Image

Shopping

LBS

Games

Advertisement

MMS


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Cellular Technology

  • CDMA-Code Division Multiple Access(digital)

  • TDMA-Time Division Multiple Access(digital)

  • FDMA-Frequency Division Multiple Access(analog)

  • GSM-Global System For Mobile Communication(digital)


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The Difference of FDMA/TDMA/CDMA

資料來源:Network Computing


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FDMA/TDMA/CDMA行動電話技術演進

第一代行動電話(一九八○年代)

採用的傳輸技術為類比式傳輸(Analog),最為人熟知如

美國的AMPS系統,也就是台灣第一個引進的行動電話

系統, 也就是FDMA。

第二代行動電話(一九九○年代)

進步到採用數位傳輸技術(Digital),如D-AMPS(現

以TDMA統稱之)、GSM、PDC及CDMA。其訊號內容

經類比轉數位技術處理後,用「0」和「1」的組合來

代表訊號內容。

第三代行動電話系統(西元二千年)

同樣是採用數位技術,不同於第一、二代行動通訊系統只提供語

音服務,尚包括數據、多媒體服務,系統將提供寬頻應用為主,

如W-CDMA、CDMA2000。目前標準仍在制訂中,預計今年底

完成。


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CDMA Standard

  • IS-95 規格 :

    資料傳輸率 9.6 kb/s

    Chip Rate = 1.2288 Mchips/s

    頻道寬度 1.25MHz

  • W-CDMA = Wideband CDMA

    歐洲和日本共同提出

    能夠架設在現有的GSM網路上

    Chip Rate = 4.096 Mchips/s 。

  • CDMA開發組織(CDG,CDMA Development Group)

    所發展出來。

    CDMA-2000特別強調與IS-95的相容性。

    Chip Rate = 3.6864 Mchips/s ,正是IS-95 Chip Rate 1.2288

    Mchips/s的三倍


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CDMA V.S GSM

  • 通訊品質,CDMA比GSM好。

  • 塞車、斷訊問題,CDMA比GSM來得少。

  • CDMA的每一個基地台容量大約是GSM的三倍。

  • 基地台涵蓋範圍,CDMA比GSM來得大。

  • 加值功能,相差不多。

  • CDMA漫遊國比較少(中、美、韓、日、歐洲、臺灣等地 )。

  • CDMA手機待機與通話時間較長 , 功率低。


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規格

全名

Cellular

(MHZ)

PCS

(MHZ)

發源地區

GSM

Global System for Mobile communication

900

1800、1900

歐洲

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access

800

1700、1900

美國

D-AMPS

Digital AMPS

800

1900

美國

PDC

Personal Digital Communication

800

1500

日本

數位式行動通訊系統各規格標準

資料來源:ITIS


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The History of ChungHwa Telecom

  • 1943 The Directorate General of Telecommunications (DGT) was established.

  • Jan. 1996 The Telecommunications Act and the Organizational Statute of the DGT, was finally completed.

  • Feb. 1996 Both of these laws were promulgated.

  • Jul. 1996 DGT was designed to specialize in the telecom policy formation and market management from then on

  • Jul. 1996 CHT completed its corporatization.


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History of Taiwan Cellular Corp.

  • Feb. 1997 The Company was formally established

  • May. 1997 First mobile phone call over TCC's network test succeeded.

  • Nov. 1998 Net subscribers surpassed one million. TCC became the fourth largest GSM 1800 mobile operator in the world and the largest in Asia.

  • Mar. 2000 Launched " e-WAP " service

  • Jun. 2001 Acquired TransAsia Telecommunications Inc., total net subscribers reached 6.4 million.

  • Feb. 2002 Participated the bid for 3G mobile service license and won spectrum block C license.

  • Jun. 2002 Launched the "Mobile Photo" service based on Multimedia Messaging Service ( MMS ), becoming the first telecom operator worldwide to introduce such a service on self-developed infrastructure

  • Jun. 2004 Acquired 67% stock of MOBITAI Telecommunications Inc.


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History of FarEastone

  • May. 1996 Yuan Ze University suggested the Far Eastern Group to diversify into telecommunications business

  • Oct. 1996 Preparation office of Far EasTone Telecommunications formed by FEG and AT&T.

  • Jan. 1997 Far EasTone awarded two licenses to provide GSM1800 service islandwide and GSM900 in northern Taiwan.

  • Jan. 1998 Officially launched services with the world's first fully-integrated GSM900/1800 dual-band network.

  • Apr. 1998 Launched GSM900 domestic roaming service with Mobitai and TransAsia.

  • Nov. 1999 Launched mobile banking, online FET store, and online activation services as an initial step into mobile e-commerce.

  • Dec. 1999 Launched WAP and Internet access service FETnet.net (IAS to existing mobile customers only)

  • Apr. 2000 First in Taiwan to complete a GPRS data call.

  • Jun. 2002 Far EasTone and IBM Successfully Launch First GSM/GPRS Service Platform, Enabling Mobile e-Business


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History of FarEastone

  • DEC. 2002 Partnered with Sharp in launching Taiwan's first clamshell GPRS/MMS/Java mobile phone with a built-in digital camera and TFT LCD color display

  • Apr. 2003 Launched Taiwan’s first public 3G video call

  • Apr. 2004 Both Far EasTone and KG Telecom Subscribers Are Able to Enjoy i-mode® Service

  • Apr. 2004 All of the necessary share conversions and formal procedural matters were completed for the merger on April 29th making KG Telecom a wholly owned subsidiary of FET.


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History of KG Telecom

  • Jan. 1997 KG Telecom is granted permission to operate a GSM1800 mobile network in northern Taiwan.

  • Dec. 1997 Taiwan's government issues to KG Telecom the first private mobile operator license.

  • May. 1998 KG Telecom brings more "firsts" to Taiwan, introducing the new technology of micro cell base stations.

  • Aug. 1998 In a joint venture with Motorola, KG Telecom unveils the world's first Chinese dual-band handset.

  • Jan. 1999 With the acquisition of a controlling 82 percent interest in Tuntex Telecom, KG Telecom becomes a nation-wide GSM 1800 operator.

  • Mar. 1999 Contract with Nokia for the Asia's first GPRS network.

  • Oct. 1999 Launch the M-Mode Information Services, integrating mobile commerce and mobile Internet. By using 32K SIM Tool Kit and WAP technologies, the M-Mode Services bring in Mobile Internet, Internet Messaging, Mobile Banking, Mobile Securities, Mobile Secretary, Mobile Dictionary, Ringtone and Graphic Download and e-Trade.


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History of KG Telecom

  • Dec. 1999 Contract with Nokia for the expansion of KG Telecom's  GSM network.And complete the pilot testing of Asia's first GPRS system over KG Telecom's GSM network.

  • Dec. 1999 The first in Taiwan to launch WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) Service

  • Jan. 2000 The first in Taiwan to launch Mobile Satellite Base StationsApr. 2000 Successfully complete packet data transmission over live GPRS network

  • Feb. 2001 Launch the first commercial GPRS services in Asia.

  • Aug. 2001 Introduces igogo mobile Internet servcie based on GPRS technology with 3 unparalleled functions: igogo Email, WTS(web transcoding server) and igogo menu (wireless portal)

  • Jun. 2002 KG Telecom launched i-mode® service which enables the fulfillment of broadband access in the Chinese region. The most successful Internet business model all over the world that creates new telecom era in Taiwan

  • Apr. 2004 Combine with FarEastone


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Mobile Communication in Taiwan

At the Q2 of 2004, cellular phone subscribers in Taiwan totaled 23,050,000, for a penetration rate of 101.81% and exceeded one account per person.

資料來源:交通部電信總局。資料整理:資策會ACI-FIND


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Mobile Internet in Taiwan

  • 資料來源:交通部電信總局。資料整理:資策會ACI-FIND


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認識WAP

  • 一、WAP是什麼?WAP 是Wireless Application Protocol的縮寫,它是無線應用的一種協定,由易立信(ERICSSON)、諾基亞(NOKIA)、摩托羅拉(Motorola)和Phone.com於1997年一起制定出來的,WAP可讓手機的使用者獲得以網際網路為基礎的互動性資訊與應用,並以無線上網的方式連上WAP專門網站。


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認識WAP

  • 二、WAP的應用範圍WAP協定訂定了無線通訊設備上網存取服務的通訊標準,而該協定所需的無線通訊設備不限於行動電話,如PDA、Pocket PC…等,只要具無線通訊功能的設備都可以,且也不只限於上述廠家製造的行動電話。由於WAP無線應用的特性,所以在功能應用上就非常個人化、即時性及活動性。可以讓人們使用行動銀行、E-mail、即時新聞、氣象預告、股票買賣、購物、急難救援…等多種服務。

  • 三、如何使用WAP加值服務?

    1.需有WAP手機

    2.向電信業者申請WAP加值服務並設定手機功能


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台灣電信運營行業的發展


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中華電信


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台灣大哥大


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新休閒費率方案 New Type

遠傳電信

一般費率方案 General Type

* 網內互打不論一般時段或減價時段均以 0.1 元/秒收費 * 收聽語音信箱不論一般時段或減價時段均以 0.06 元/秒收費 請注意: ※易付卡費率方案預設為一般費率,若您需變更易付卡費率, 除第一次變更免費外,自第二次起每次變更成功,將從儲值餘額中收取手續費NT$50。

* 網內互打不論一般時段或減價時段均以 0.1 元/秒收費 * 收聽語音信箱不論一般時段或減價時段均以 0.06 元/秒收費

遠傳易付一塊卡

* 實施日:自民國91年5月24日起。 * 「遠傳易付卡 一塊卡」售價NT$350,內含遠傳易付卡門號及NT$350通話費。 * 遠傳易付一塊卡網內簡訊每則1元之優惠,僅限手機發簡訊至遠傳用戶,且於第一次通話後始生效,此優惠無截止期限。 * 自系統下載任何罐頭簡訊至手機,按系統原定費率計算,但下載後從手機傳給遠傳用戶,可享每則1元優惠。


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泛亞電信


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PHS大眾電信


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各家WAP費率


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中國六大電訊公司

  • 中國電信 China Telecom Corp.(www.chinatelecom.com.cn)

  • 中國移動 China Mobile Communications Corp. (www.chinamobile.com)

  • 中國聯通 China United Telecommunications Corp.(www.chinaunicom.com.cn)http://516.com/28.htm

  • 中國網通 CNC International Corporation LTD. (www.cnc.net.cn)

  • 中國鐵通 China Railway Signal & Communication (www.crsc.com.cn)

  • 中國衛通 China Satellite Communications Corp. (www.chinasatcom.com)


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The History of China Telecom

May. 2000 The Company was formally established.

May. 2002 It was officially established in May 2002 after the split of the former CHINA TELECOM into two groups: CHINA TELECOM (south) and CHINA NETCOM (north).

Sep. 2002 CHINA TELECOM Corporation Limited was founded.


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The History of China Mobile

  • Apr.2000 The Company was officially established

  • Dec. 2000 China Mobile total net subscribers reached 60million.

  • Jul. 2001China Mobile ranked the 287th in the latest Fortune World Top 500.

  • May. 2002 Launch the commercial GPRS services

  • Oct. 2002 Launch the commercial MMS services

  • Nov. 2002 Contract with AT&T Wireless for the GPRS network.


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The History of China Unicom

  • Jul. 1994 China Unicom was incorporated.

  • Feb. 1999 China Unicom started restructuring.

  • Jun. 2000 China Unicom Internet service was launched.

  • Oct. 2002 China Unicom was successfully listed on Shanghai Stock Exchange, making the company the first Chinese telecom operator listed simultaneously at Hong Kong, US and Mainland China.

  • Dec. 2003 China Unicom's GSM subscriber number exceeded 70 million.

  • Dec. 2003 China Unicom's CDMA subscriber number topped 19 million and the company became world's 2nd largest CDMA operator

  • May. 2004 China Unicom announced that the total number of its GSM and CDMA subscribers exceeded 100 million, and thus it became the world's 3rd largest GSM operator


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The History of CNC

  • Nov.2003 CNC International was declared open in Beijing, China.

  • Jul. 2004 China Netcom Joins the List of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games Official Sponsors.


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The History of China TieTong

  • Dec. 2000 the former China TieTong---China Railcom was founded.

  • Jan. 2004 China TieTong shifted from the Ministry of Railways to the administration of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) and its name was changed to "China TieTong Telecommunications Corporation."


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The History of China Satcom

  • Dec. 2001 China Satellite Communications Corporation, one of the six basic telecommunications operators in China, (hereinafter referred to as “China Satcom ”) was founded.

  • Apr. 2003 China Satellite Communications Corporation (Guangdong) was found on Mar. 21st, 2003. At the same time, China Satcom (Guangdong) and Agricultural Bank of China (Guangdong) have put their pen to paper on a strategic cooperative agreement in Guangzhou.


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中國六大電訊公司

Source: Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, 2004; www.chinasatcom.com, 2004


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The Fare of China Mobile

全球通


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The Fare of China Mobile

神州行


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The Fare of China Mobile

WLAN


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The Fare of China Mobile

GPRS


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The Fare of China Unicom

GSM後付


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The Fare of China Unicom

GSM預付


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The Fare of China Unicom

CMDA預付


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中國電信運營行業的發展


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Mobile Communication in China


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Mobile Entertainment

  • High penetration rate, new content, multiple download choices drive the market growth.

  • Major consumption result from images and music downloading for individual identity.

  • The music changes from mono to stereo; the image also change from mono to color.


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At the Q3 of 2004 Digital Camera Mobile subscribers in China, for a penetration rate of 23%


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Mobile Entertainment Market Size

Source: MIC 2003 Unit: Million NT dollars


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Mobile Payment System

Consumer explore, place orders, and pay with mobile payment

by their cell phone number and passwords

Consumer

Stores

*Contract with stores

*Check user identity

*.Close the case

Telecom

Operator

*Consumer register and get passwords

*Identity checked

*Bills go with telecom bills

  • Telecom operators are responsible for authentication and authorization.

  • Stores share the cost of fees transfer and bad debt.


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Compared with other payment methods


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Financial Information Value Chain

Content Provider:

TSE, newspapers

Financial Info Provider

System Provider: Microsoft

Telecom Operator

Terminal Device Manufacturer


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Mobile Financial Information Usage

CAGR 11%

  • 80% of financial information usage are stock info devices.

  • After the launch of JAVA compatible phones, new application may induce more users for stock investment.


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Location-Based Services

Low cost/ Low precise

Consumer Market

Cell ID

E-CELL ID

TDOA

AOA

Enterprise Market

EOTD

GPS

  • The location-based services can be precise within 200m and its major application is information on demand to consumers.

  • E-CELL ID – Enhanced Cell ID

  • TDOA-Time Difference of Arrival Location Determination

  • AOA-Angle of Arrival

  • EOTD-Enhanced Observed Time Difference

  • GPS-Global Positioning System has highest precision and has been applied to taxi management .

High cost/ High precise

Position Service


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The Difference with Location-Based Services


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LBS-Consumer Market

  • Transportation: map, station location query.

  • Food: restaurant query.

  • Entertainment: friend finder, gaming.

  • House: rental and leasing information.

  • Others: job hunting, tracking services.


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Conclusion

  • Image and music downloading are major application, while mobile games are one of the most promising in the future.

  • 3G and JAVA facilitate diversifying mobile entertainment, but technical problems sill need to be solved.

  • Mobile payment is highly associated with its convenience and penetration; the cooperation among telecom operators will facilitate its development.

  • Financial information services are major mobile information service application.

  • Regarding the cost and precision, GPS is mainly applied to enterprise, and consumer market focuses on information on demand.

  • China’s 1.3 billion population and 70% potential users give mobile commerce the greatest potential.


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In the Future

  • Wi-Fi (short for "wireless fidelity") is a term for certain types of wireless local area network, WLAN (see example)

  • Location Based Commerce (see example)

  • General Packet Radio Service, GPRS (see example)

  • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) can be used for Internet access (see example)

  • M-Commerce Security (see example)

  • Radio frequency identification, RFID (see example)


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The Wi-Fi Technology

  • Wi-Fi, or Wireless Fidelity, is freedom. It's powerful. Wi-Fi networks use radio technologies called IEEE 802.11b or 802.11a to provide secure, reliable, fast wireless connectivity. A Wi-Fi network can be used to connect computers to each other, to the Internet, and to wired networks (which use IEEE 802.3 or Ethernet). Wi-Fi networks operate in the unlicensed 2.4 and 5 GHz radio bands, with an 11 Mbps (802.11b) or 54 Mbps (802.11a) data rate or with products that contain both bands (dual band), so they can provide real-world performance similar to the basic 10BaseT wired Ethernet networks used in many offices.

Datamonitor PLC, a market research firm in London, predicts that the number of Wi-Fi hot spots worldwide will grow from 31,000 this year to 135,000 by 2007.


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Illustrative Example: NextBus and Intelligent Vending Demo

  • The Problem

    • Buses in San Francisco have difficulty keeping to 20 minute schedule during rush hours

    • Posted schedule becomes meaningless

  • The Solution

    • Bus riders carrying Internet-enabled cell phone or PDA helps:

      • Find estimated arrival time at each stop, digitally in real time

      • Soon location-based advertisements will pop up—you have time to get a cup of coffee before the bus arrives—Starbuck’s is 200 feet to the right

  • IBM Intelligent Vending Initiative


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NextBus Operational Model


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GPRS


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Security Issues

  • Virus detection and protection

  • Smart card security solutions

    • Voice communication can be intercepted by hackers

    • One solution is an embedded biometric add-on

  • Back-end security solutions—public key infrastructure (PKI) and M-CERT (mobile certification)

  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) - a security protocol, specified in the IEEE Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) standard, 802.11b, that is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a level of security and privacy comparable to what is usually expected of a wired LAN


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Radio frequency identification (RFID)

  • RFID first appeared in tracking and access applications during the 1980s. These wireless AIDC systems (Automatic Identification and Data Capture ) allow for non-contact reading and are effective in manufacturing and other hostile environments where bar code labels could not survive. RFID has established itself in a wide range of markets including livestock identification and automated vehicle identification (AVI) systems because of its ability to track moving objects. A basic RFID system consist of three components:

    • An antenna or coil

    • A transceiver (with decoder)

    • transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information

  • Often the antenna is packaged with the transceiver and decoder to become areader(a.k.a. interrogator), which can be configured either as a handheld or a fixed-mount device. The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more.


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  • RFID tags come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.

  • RFID tags are categorized as either active or passive. Active RFID tags are powered by an internal battery and are typically read/write, i.e., tag data can be rewritten and/or modified.

  • Passive RFID tags operate without a separate external power source and obtain operating power generated from the reader. Read-only tags are typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually 32 to 128 bits) that cannot be modified.

  • The significant advantage of all types of RFID systems is the noncontact, non-line-of-sight nature of the technology. Tags can be read through a variety of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime, and other visually and environmentally challenging conditions, where barcodes or other optically read technologies would be useless.


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