Technical writing
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Technical writing. September 18, 2012. Today. Memos. Review – The Writing Process. Step 1: Brainstorming & Planning Step 2: Drafting (write a rough draft) Step 3: Revising Step 4: Editing. Step 3: Revising. “Rethinking” Content : accuracy, relevant, adequate.

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Technical writing

Technical writing

September 18, 2012


Today

Today

  • Memos


Review the writing process

Review – The Writing Process

  • Step 1: Brainstorming & Planning

  • Step 2: Drafting (write a rough draft)

  • Step 3: Revising

  • Step 4: Editing


Step 3 revising

Step 3: Revising

“Rethinking”

Content: accuracy, relevant, adequate.

Organization: Clear, effective, concise.

Tone: Professional and sincere vs. arrogant.


Step 3 revising organization

Step 3: Revising - organization

To: Kelly AndersonFrom: Jack FitzgeraldDate: September 13, 2012

Subject: Fall Clothes Line Promotion

Market research and analysis show that the proposed advertising media for the new fall lines need to be reprioritized and changed. Findings from focus groups and surveys have made it apparent that we need to update our advertising efforts to align them with the styles and trends of young adults today. 

XYZ Company needs to focus advertising on internet sites that appeal to young people. According to surveys, 72% of our target market uses the internet for five hours or more per week. The following list shows in order of popularity the most frequented sites: Google, Facebook, Myspace, Ebay, iTunes.

It used to be common to advertise for our products on shows like Friends and Seinfeld for our target audience, but even the face of television is changing. Young adults are tuning into reality television shows for their entertainment. Results from the focus group show that our target audience is most interested in shows like American Idol,The Apprentice, andAmerica's Next Top Model. 

By refocusing our advertising efforts of our new line of clothing we will be able to maximize the exposure of our product to our target market


Step 3 revising organization1

Step 3: Revising - organization

To: Kelly AndersonFrom: Jack FitzgeraldDate: September 18, 2012

Subject: Fall Clothes Line Promotion

Market research and analysis show that the proposed advertising media for the new fall lines need to be reprioritized and changed. Findings from focus groups and surveys have made it apparent that we need to update our advertising efforts to align them with the styles and trends of young adults today. 

Internet Advertising

XYZ Company needs to focus advertising on internet sites that appeal to young people. According to surveys, 72% of our target market uses the internet for five hours or more per week. The following list shows in order of popularity the most frequented sites:

-Google

- Facebook

- Myspace

- Ebay

- iTunes.

Television Advertising

It used to be common to advertise for our products on shows like Friends and Seinfeld for our target audience, but even the face of television is changing. Young adults are tuning into reality television shows for their entertainment. Results from the focus group show that our target audience is most interested in shows like 

- American Idol

- The Apprentice

- America's Next Top Model. 

By refocusing our advertising efforts of our new line of clothing we will be able to maximize the exposure of our product to our target market


Step 3 revising tone

Step 3: Revising (Tone)

Be confident…

…but not TOO confident.

i.e.,

You must agree that I am qualified for the position.

My qualifications in the areas of accounting and customer service meet your job requirements.


Step 3 revising tone1

Step 3: Revising (Tone)

Be courteous and sincere…

…not rude.

i.e.,

You didn’t read the instructions carefully, thus your system has shut down.

The system may automatically shut down if any installation errors occur.


Technical writing

Tone

  • We will have a closer look at tone later in the semester.


Step 4 editing

Step 4: Editing

  • “Quality control.”

  • Edit your writing only after you are satisfied with the “big” decisions about content and organization.


Step 4 editing1

Step 4: Editing

Quality Control

  • Editing involves checking:

  • Sentences

  • Word choices

  • Punctuation and spelling

  • Grammar

  • Clarity


Assignment

Assignment

Brainstorming revision

Outline

Memo

Please check the website for information.

Deadline: Next Friday (September 21)


Technical writing

Memo

  • Short for Memorandum, Latin for “something to be remembered.”

  • Memos are brief “in-house “ correspondences sent throughout companies and organizations.

    “in-house” = within a company/organization.


Memos

Memos

Memos serve a variety of functions:

- making an announcement- providing instructions

- clarifying a policy/procedure/issue

- changing a policy or procedure

- alerting employees to a problem or issue

- offering general information

- providing a brief summary

- making a request,

- offering suggestions

  • calling a meeting

  • AND MORE!!


Memos1

Memos

  • Memos are usually written for an in-house audience (people in your organization), but are sometimes used for short reports sent to another organization.

  • They keep track of:

  • What jobs are done and where, when, and by whom.

  • Also report difficulties, delays, or cancellations.


Writing a memo

Writing a Memo

  • Before you start writing a memo, you need to…???

  • ANALYZE YOUR AUDIENCE

  • When?

  • Who?

  • Where?

  • Why?

  • Also…

  • Costs?

  • Technology?What’s next?


Memo audience analysis

Memo Audience Analysis

  • When? When did it happen? Is it on, ahead, or behind schedule?, etc.

  • Who? Who is involved? Who is affected by it?, etc.

  • Where? Where did it take place? Why does it need to take place at this location?, etc.

  • Why? Why is it an important topic?, etc.

  • Costs? How much will it cost? Is the cost worth it?, etc.

  • Technology? What technology is involved? Is the technology suitable, available, current, adaptable?, etc.

  • What’s next? What steps should now be taken? What are the implications?, etc.


Memo format

Memo Format

  • Memos vary in format.

  • They can be generic or pre-printed with the company name/logo, and they can be sent in hard copy or via e-mail.

  • Because memos are sent to individuals within a company, they do not need to include the formalities included in business letters, such as inside address, salutation, complimentary close, or signature line.


Technical writing

Business letter

Memo


Memo format1

Memo Format

  • Memos consist of two parts:

  • 1. The identifying information at the top (to, from, date, subject)

  • 2. The message.


Memo format2

Memo Format

Generally, the headings are organized like this:

To:

From:

Date:

Subject:


Memo format3

Memo Format

To: H.K. Floppywick, Manager Campus bookstore

  • Identify the recipient clearly; use title (if he/she uses one). Recipients may also be addressed as a group.

    To: KAC sophomore students.


Memo format4

Memo Format

From: Prof. Bob Noddington Department of International Relations Room 527, KAC 580-7896

  • Identify the author, and add title if the memo is going to someone not well known (i.e., another department or another company).

  • For more familiar audiences, the author needs only basic info.

    From: Joan Campbell.


Memo format5

Memo Format

Date: September 18, 2012

  • Write the date in this format

    month date, year


Memo format6

Memo Format

Subject: Request for new textbooks to support ongoing research ($800)

  • Give a clear, detailed identification of the subject.

    Subject: Ways to improve workplace safety.

    Subject: Introduction to new office network protocol.


Memo format7

Memo Format

To: H.K. Floppywick, Manager Campus bookstore

From: Prof. Bob Noddington Department of International Relations Room 527, KAC 580-7896

Date: September 18, 2012

Subject: Request for new textbooks to support ongoing research ($800)


Strategies for organizing memos

Strategies for Organizing Memos

  • Organize your memos so that readers can find information quickly and act on it promptly.


Strategies for organizing memos1

Strategies for Organizing Memos

  • For longer, more complex memo communications, divide your memo into three parts:

    • Introduction

    • Body (Discussion)

    • Conclusion


Strategies for organizing memos2

Strategies for Organizing Memos

  • Introduction:

    Tell readers clearly about the issue or policy, explain any background information the reader needs to know, and be specific about what you are going to accomplish in your memo.


Strategies for organizing memos3

Strategies for Organizing Memos

  • Introduction:

    “Starting January 1, we will introduce the following change in regard to our company policy with regard to annual leave: every year one employee from each department will be awarded special annual bonus leave for outstanding performance.”


Strategies for organizing memos4

Strategies for Organizing Memos

2. Body (Discussion):

State why a problem or procedure is important and who will be affected by it, indicate why changes are necessary, and give precise dates, times, locations, and costs.


Strategies for organizing memos5

Strategies for Organizing Memos

2. Body (Discussion):

“The eligible employees will have additional five (5) days of annual leave credited on January 15. The bonus leave will be accounted for separately and will remain available until used, notwithstanding any other limitation of the total number of days annual leave that may be carried forward.


Strategies for organizing memos6

Strategies for Organizing Memos

3. Conclusion:

Ask readers to call you if they have questions, request a reply, and provide a list of recommendations.


Strategies for organizing memos7

Strategies for Organizing Memos

3. Conclusion:

“We will have a meeting on December 15 at 10:00 a.m. to discuss the results of the 2012 performance evaluation and approve the final list of employees eligible for the bonus. The announcement to the employees will follow the meeting. If you have any questions or comments, please let me know before the meeting.”


Next class

Next class

  • Continue with memos.

  • Don’t forget to check the assignment information sheet and start working on the assignment!

  • Due Friday (11:59 p.m.)

  • Send to: [email protected]


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