Huun huur tu do you want me to saddle you where the young grass grows 1999
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Huun-Huur-Tu, “Do You Want Me to Saddle You?,” Where the Young Grass Grows (1999). The Mongol World Empire. The Imperial Alternatives. Run empire on traditional nomadic lines, as a tribal confederation But, what to do with sedentary peoples of China and Persia? Extermination?

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Huun huur tu do you want me to saddle you where the young grass grows 1999
Huun-Huur-Tu, “Do You Want Me to Saddle You?,” Where the Young Grass Grows (1999)



The imperial alternatives
The Imperial Alternatives

  • Run empire on traditional nomadic lines, as a tribal confederation

  • But, what to do with sedentary peoples of China and Persia?

    • Extermination?

    • Ruthless exploitation?

      • Example of Il Khanate


The imperial alternatives 2
The Imperial Alternatives - 2

  • Borrow practices of previous Turco-Mongolian Peoples

    • Cooked and uncooked barbarians

    • Uighurs

      • Introduced writing to Mongols

    • Qara-Khitai (or Khitans)

      • Darugachi, a provincial administrative figure

      • Yam – the postal service


The imperial alternatives 3
The Imperial Alternatives - 3

  • Adopt methods of the settled peoples

    • Most prominent in China and Persia

    • Persia: local elites, such as Juwayni, recruited into service


The imperial alternatives 4
The Imperial Alternatives - 4

  • China

    • Lower level of bureaucracy staffed by Chinese

    • Upper levels reserved for non-Chinese, often from Central Asia, such as Mahmud Yalavach


Mongol institutions
Mongol Institutions

  • The Army

    • In a sense, all Mongols belong to the army

    • Highly mobile

    • Decimal organization



Mongol institutions 2
Mongol Institutions - 2

  • The Great Yasa (1206?), or law code

  • Taxation

    • Head tax (qubchur)

    • Sales tax (tamgha)

  • Communications


Factors for imperial disintegration
Factors for Imperial Disintegration

  • Horizontal stratification: a nobility emerges

  • Vertical differentiation: armies split off from rest of the people

  • Sedentarization and denomadification of ruling elites, e.g. Kubilai Khan



Factors for imperial disintegration 2
Factors for Imperial Disintegration - 2

  • Lack of clear rules for succession to imperial throne

    • Mixture of hereditary right and election

    • Both lineal and lateral succession recognized

    • Designation by ruling khan also used


Factors for imperial disintegration 3
Factors for Imperial Disintegration - 3

  • Ögodei, 3rd son of Chingiz Khan,designated and elected, 1229

  • Küyük, son of Ögodei, elected, 1247

  • Möngke, son of Chingiz’ youngest son, elected over opposition, 1251

  • Kubilai, brother of Möngke, elected in a disputed election, leading to civil war, 1260


Disintegration
Disintegration

  • Empire becomes group of sub-khanates

  • Example of China

    • Mongols illegitimate in eyes of Chinese

    • 1353-54: plague and rebellion

    • Inflation

    • 1368: Ming dynasty established


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