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Abbreviations. letter(s) or shortened word used instead of a full word or phrase For example: ‘Isn’t’ instead of ‘Is not’. Accent. the features of pronunciation which indicate the regional or the social identity of a speaker. Adjectives.

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Abbreviations

letter(s) or shortened word used instead of a full word or phraseFor example: ‘Isn’t’ instead of ‘Is not’


Accent

the features of pronunciation which indicate the regional or the social identity of a speaker


Adjectives

a word which modifies a noun or a pronoun For example: ‘The huge giant’


Adverbs

a word which modifies a verb, an adverb, or an adjective For example: ‘The boy walked slowly’


Alliteration

the repetition of consonant sounds - usually at the beginning of words For example, ‘a tapestry of talents’


Antitheses

the placing of opposite meanings together,For example: ‘My only love sprung from my only hate!’


Apostrophes

a raised comma used to denote either possession or contraction For example: ‘Brian’s ipod’ or ‘That’s’ instead of ‘That is’.


Articles

a word that specifies whether a noun is definite or indefinite For example: ‘The woman’ (definite article) or ‘A woman’ (Indefinite article)


Assonance

the repetition of vowel sounds For example, ‘Rocks writhe back to sight’


Audience

the person or persons receiving a speech or piece of writingFor example: students in a classroom; M.Ps in the House of Commons; a teenage television audience etc.


Back-channelling

is a way of showing a speaker that you are following what they are saying and understand, often through interjectionsFor example, ‘I see’, yes’, ‘OK’and ‘uhu’.


Balanced phrases

Phrases in which the end seems to finish or complete the beginning.For example, ‘To have and to hold’


Brackets

curved or square punctuation marks enclosing words inserted into a text For example: ‘I hobbled to the shops (I had twisted me ankle that morning) so that I could buy some milk.’


Capitals

upper-case letters used to indicate names, titles, and important words


Clauses

a structural unit of language which is smaller than the sentence but larger than phrases or words, and which contains a finite verb


Cliché

an over-used phrase or expression For example: ‘Wish you were here.’


Closed question

invites a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answerFor example: ‘Have you seen it?’


Colons

a punctuation mark introducing more informationFor example: ‘Things so look for: sharp claws, thick fur, flaring nostrils and long tail.’


Commas

a punctuation mark indicating the break between and main and subordinate clause or separating short items in a list For example: ‘The man walked down the street, as if he was in a great hurry.’ Or ‘I need to buy apples, bananas, pasta, tomato sauce and biscuits.’


Conjunction

a word which connects words or other constructions For example: ‘and’ ‘or’ ‘because’


Consonant

an alphabetic element other than a vowel For example: c, b, n, r, t etc.


Context

the setting in which speech or writing takes placeFor example: on the web; in the classroom; on television etc.


Dialect

a form of speech peculiar to a district, class, or person. It refers to the distinctive use of vocabulary and grammatical structures.


Ellipsis

the omission of words from a sentence For example: ‘I really don’t know what to say... I guess...’


Emotive words

words which are used deliberately to create an emotional response in the reader/listener.For example: ‘our brave lads’ rather than ‘the soldiers’


Figure of speech

expressive use language in non-literal form to produce striking effect For example: ‘As sharp as a razor’ (Simile); ‘The cat’s pyjamas’ (Metaphor)


Formal address

addressing another person in a polite way to show respect

For example: ‘Sir Alan Sugar’


Full stop

a punctuation mark indicating the end of a sentence For example: ‘The man walked down the street.’


Function

the role language plays to express ideas or attitudesFor example: to persuade; to inform; to explain etc.


Grammar

the study of sentence structure, especially with reference to syntax and morphology


Homonyms

words with the same spelling or sound but with different meanings For example: ‘There’/ ‘Their’/ ‘They’re’


Hyphen

a short horizontal mark used to connect words or syllables, or to divide words into parts For example: ‘jet-lagged’


Idiolect

a person’s own personal language, the words they choose and any other features that characterise their speech and writing. Some people have distinctive features in their language; these would be part of their idiolect, their individual linguistic choices and idiosyncrasies.


Informal address

addressing someone in a more casual way to show a family or equal relationshipFor example: ‘Mum’ or ‘mate’


Irony

saying [or writing] one thing, whilst meaning the opposite For example: ‘It is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.’


Intonation

the use of pitch in speech to create contrast and variation


Jargon

the technical language of an occupation or groupFor example: ‘plenary’ (Education); ‘ISAs’ (banking)


Language change

the development and changes in a language


Leading question

A question which already implies somethingFor example: ‘Have you stopped taking bribes?’


Lexis

the vocabulary of a language, especially in dictionary form


Metaphor

a figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another For example: ‘The cat’s pyjamas’


Morphology

a branch of grammar which studies the structure of words


Narrator

the person (named or unknown) who is telling a story


Noun

a word which names an object For example: ‘cat’, ‘boy’, ‘London’ etc.


Onomatopoeia

a word that sounds like the thing it describes For example, ‘the sound of feet drumming the earth’


Open question

invites an unpredictable response

‘What do you think of it?’


Oxymoron

a figure of speech which yokes two contradictory terms For example: ‘fuzzy logic’


Paradox

a figure of speech in which an apparent contradiction contains a truthFor example: ‘I know that I know nothing.’


Paragraph

a distinct passage of writing which is unified by an idea or a topic


Parenthesis

a word, clause or even sentence which is inserted into a sentence to which it does not grammatically belong. It is usually separated by either commas, brackets or dashes. Parenthesis usually shows an aside or interruption to the text/speech.For example: I enjoy visiting Cornwall (even when it is raining) in September.


Phatic speech or phatic communication

consists of words or phrases that have a social function and are not meant literally. When people are thankedFor example: ‘You're welcome’ in reply is meant to show politeness and not to be interpreted as literally welcoming the person you say it to.


Phonetics

the study of the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds


Phonology

a study of the sounds in any language


Phrase

a group of words, smaller than a clause, which forms a grammatical unit


Point of view

a term from literary studies which describes the perspective or source of a piece of writing


Preposition

links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence.For example: ‘The book is on the table.’ ‘The book is beneath the table.’ ‘She held the book over the table.’


Pronoun

a word that can substitute for a noun or a noun phrase


Punctuation

a system of marks used to introduce pauses and interruption into writing


Received pronunciation

the regionally neutral, prestige accent of British English. It was historically used in the media, especially the BBC.


Repetition

a word or phrase is repeated for deliberate effectFor example: ‘We will stand up, we will fight, we will win.’


Rhetorical questions

questions which are asked for stylistic or persuasive effect and do not require an answerFor example: ‘Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?’


Sarcasm

a form of irony that is widely used in English especially when people are being humorous. Generally the sarcastic speaker or writer means the exact opposite of the word they use, often intending to be rude or to laugh at the person the words are addressed to.


Semantics

the study of the meaning of words.


Semicolon

a punctuation mark which can link two or more main clauses or separate longer items in a listFor example: ‘the car swerved across the road; the driver was drunk.’


Sentence

a set of words which form a grammatically complete statement, usually containing a subject, verb, and object


Simile

a figure of speech in which one thing is directly likened to another , using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’For example: ‘as sharp as a razor’


Slang

informal, non-standard vocabulary For example: ‘innit’


Speech

the oral medium of transmission for language


Spelling

the convention governing the representation of words by letters in writing systems


Standard English

a dialect representing English speech and writing comprehensible to most users. It conforms to an agreed standard in grammar and vocabulary. It does not refer to the accent used to pronounce it.


Structure

the arrangement of parts or ideas in a piece of writing


Style

aspects of writing (or speech) which have an identifiable character generally used in a positive sense to indicate 'pleasing effects'


Superlative

the form of an adjective or adverb that shows which thing has that quality above or below the level of the others. It takes the definite article and short adjectives add -est and longer ones take 'most'For example: ‘Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.’ Or ‘It is the most expensive restaurant I've ever been to.’


Symbol

an object which represents something other than its self


Synonym

a word which means (almost) the same as another For example: ‘small’ and ‘little’


Syntax

the arrangement of words to show relationships of meaning within a sentence


Tag question

A question which seeks confirmation

‘That’s right, isn’t it?’


Tense

the form taken by a verb to indicate time (as in past-present-future)


Text

any piece of writing or object being studied


Tone

an author's or speaker's attitude, as revealed in 'quality of voice' or 'selection of language'


Tripling

groups of three, used for persuasive effectFor example: ‘Friends, Romans, countrymen’


Verb

a term expressing an action or a state of being For example: ‘walk’, ‘run’, ‘jump’


Vocabulary

the particular selection or types of words chosen in speech or writing


Vowel

the open sounds made in speech - as (mainly) distinct from consonants For example: ‘a’, ‘e’, ‘i’, ‘o’, ‘u’


Writing

the use of visual symbols to represent words which act as a code for communication


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