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Computer Architecture. How Does a Computer Work? Chapter 6. Student Learning Outcomes. Identify the system unit as well as the motherboard with its components. Define ASCII and describe how information is represented inside a computer.

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computer architecture

Computer Architecture

How Does a Computer Work?

Chapter 6

student learning outcomes
Student Learning Outcomes
  • Identify the system unit as well as the motherboard with its components.
  • Define ASCII and describe how information is represented inside a computer.
  • Describe the role of the CPU, RAM, and CPU cycles in the functioning of a computer.
  • Define and explain the role of connectors, ports, expansion buses, expansion cards, and expansion slots.
  • Describe how you connect external devices to your computer.

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

introduction
Introduction

At one of the spectrum a computer can be as big as a giant warehouse such as the Cray X1. At the other end of the spectrum is a tiny computer the size of a credit card being developed by Sharp. No matter how big or small computers are, they all have certain characteristics in common.

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

system unit
System Unit
  • System unit is the case or box in which the motherboard and storage units are housed

p. 6.162 Fig. 6-1

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 1 the big picture
6.1 The Big Picture

Input

Data

Process

Data

Output

Information

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

the system unit
The System Unit
  • Motherboard is the large circuit board inside your system unit that holds the CPU, memory, and other essential electronic components
  • CAN YOU NAME THE PARTS?
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD:

“The Motherboard” and “Inside the Computer”

p. 6.164 Fig. 6.3

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

system unit terminology

Port – Place through which information and instructions flow to your computer system

Connector - plug used to connect a device to a computer

CPU –Chip that carries out instructions it receives from the software

RAM – Temporary memory that holds software instructions and information for the CPU

System Unit Terminology

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

system unit terminology1

Expansion Slot – socket on the motherboard into which an expansion card is inserted

Expansion Card – Circuit board that is inserted into an expansion slot

Expansion Bus – highway system that moves information coming from & going to devices outside the motherboard

System Unit Terminology

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 2 representing information inside a computer
6.2 Representing Information Inside a Computer
  • Binary digit (bit) has two states - 0 or 1
  • By combining bits into groups of 8, we can represent letters, symbols, and numbers, like the word "cool" (below)
  • A group of 8 bits represents one natural language character and is called abyte

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ascii ebcidic and unicode
ASCII, EBCIDIC, and Unicode
  • ASCII—AmericanStandardCodeforInformationInterchange
      • Used on personal computers; eight-bit coding system; 256 different patterns
  • EBCDIC—ExtendedBinaryCodedDecimalInterchangeCode
      • Used by IBM mainframes; eight-bit coding system; 256 different patterns
  • Unicode—coding scheme capable of representing many languages
      • Usable on many computers; 16-bit coding system; approximately 65,000 patterns
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Data Representation Using Binary Codes”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ascii ebcdic binary representations
ASCII & EBCDIC Binary Representations

p. 6.168 Fig. 6.7

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 3 cpu ram and machine cycles
6.3 CPU, RAM, and Machine Cycles
  • Central processing unit (CPU or microprocessor or processor). Chip that carries out instructions it receives from your software
  • Random access memory (RAM) Temporary memory that holds software instructions and information for the CPU
  • Machine cycle (CPU cycle or clock cycle) consists of retrieving, decoding, and executing the instruction, and returning the result to RAM

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

central processing unit
Central Processing Unit

Chip that carries out instructions it receives

from your software

Role of the CPU is analogous to the role of

your brain – keeps everything functioning

as it’s supposed to

  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “The CPU”

p. 6.169 Fig. 6.3

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

random access memory ram

Work being

created

Application

Software

instructions

Keyboard

Strokes & Mouse

Movements

Random Access Memory (RAM)

OS Instructions

RAM Holds

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

machine cycle cpu cycle

1. Retrieve an

instruction from RAM

Machine cycle consists of:

4. Store the result

In RAM

3. Execute the

instruction

2. Decode the

instruction

Machine Cycle (CPU Cycle)

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

how a cpu works
How a CPU Works

p. 6.170 Fig. 6.9

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

cpu clock
CPU Clock
  • Sliver of quartz that beats at regular intervals in response to an electrical charge
  • CPU clock keeps all the computer’s operations synchronized
  • Each tick of the CPU clock is called a clock cycle and is equivalent to a CPU cycle (machine cycle)
  • CPU uses the CPU clock to keep instructions and information flowing through your CPU at a fixed rate
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “System Clock”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

cpu clock1
CPU Clock

Each beat or tick of the

clock is called a CPU

cycle/machine cycle

CPU speed is quoted in

Megahertz (MHz = 1 million

CPU cycles per second) or

Gigahertz (GHz= 1 billiion

CPU cycles per second).

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

central processing unit1
Central Processing Unit
  • The faster a CPU is, the more heat it generates
  • A heat sink and a fan are necessary to cool the CPU down

CPU Cooling fan

CPU Heat Sink

p. 6.172 Fig. 6.11

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

classes of cpu s
Classes of CPU’s
  • Intel and AMD are two major manufacturers of CPUs for consumer computers
  • CPU speed and power continue to get faster
  • Higher-performance CPUs have top speeds and are the most expensive

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ram capacity
RAM Capacity
  • “Buy as much as you can afford”. For optimal performance purchase, more than the minimum specifications
  • 512 MB is standard on new computers – i.e. 512 million bytes
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Memory”

p.6.173 Fig. 6.13

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ram capacity how much do you need
Byte

Kilobyte (KB)

Megabytes (MB)

Gigabytes (GB)

Terabytes (TB)

Petabyte (PB)

Exabyte (EB)

= 8 bits

≈1 Thousand Bytes

≈ 1 Million Bytes

≈1 Billion Bytes

≈1 Trillion Bytes

≈1 quadrillion Bytes

≈1 quintillion Bytes

RAM Capacity: How Much Do You Need?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ram and virtual memory
RAM and Virtual Memory
  • If your computer runs out of physical RAM space, it uses hard disk space as temporary RAM, which is called virtual memory
  • Virtual memory is slower than physical RAM because instructions temporarily stored on the hard disk must be moved into RAM as they are needed

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

how virtual ram works
How Virtual RAM Works

p.6.174 Fig. 6.14

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 4 making connections
6.4 Making Connections
  • Portsare places in a computer system where external devices are plugged in, and through which information and instructions flow into the computer system
  • Connectorsconsist of cables that are used to join peripheral to the computer. Common types of connectors:
    • USB
    • Firewire
    • Serial
    • PS/2
    • Parallel
    • RJ-45

p.6.175 Fig. 6.15

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

usb connectors and ports
USB Connectors and Ports
  • USB (Universal serial bus) connector – is a plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on device
  • With plug and play, a new device can be added to your computer without having to add an adapter card or even having to turn the computer off

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

firewire ieee 1394
Firewire (IEEE 1394)
  • Firewire (IEEE1394) although different from USB, allows you to connect hot-swap, plug and play devices to your computer
  • Firewire used mostly for video camcorders and digital video disk (DVD) players
  • A popular implementation of IEEE 1394 is Sony’s I-LINK

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

serial connectors and ports
Serial Connectors and Ports
  • Serial means one event at a time. It is usually contrasted with parallel, meaning more than one event happening at a time
  • In the context of computer hardware and data transmission, serial connection, operation, and media usually indicate a simpler, slower operation and parallel indicates a faster operation

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

parallel connectors and port s
Parallel Connectors and Ports
  • On a PC, the printer is usually attached through a parallel interface and cable so that it will print faster
  • Keyboard and mouse are one-way devices that only require a serial interface and line
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Ports and Cables”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

wireless ports
Wireless Ports
  • Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communications path

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

wireless ports cont
Wireless Ports – Cont.
  • Common examples of wireless equipment
    • Cellular phones
    • Global positioning systems
    • Cordless mouse
    • Wireless networks
    • Baby monitors
    • TV remote controls

p.6.178 Fig. 6.17

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wireless ports1
Wireless Ports
  • IrDA (Infrared Data Association) port
    • Use infrared light to send and receive information
  • Bluetooth uses radio waves over distances of up to 30 feet

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

irda infrared data association
IrDA (Infrared Data Association)
  • In this form of radio transmission, a focused ray of light in the infrared frequency spectrum, measured in terahertz, or trillions of hertz (cycles per second), is modulated and sent from a relatively short distance
  • IrDa communications is playing an important role in wireless data communication due to the popularity of laptop computers, personal digital assistants, digital cameras, mobile telephones, pagers, and other devices

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

examples for using irda
Examples for Using IrDA
  • Exchange business cards between handheld PCs
  • Send a document from a notebook computer to a printer
  • Coordinate schedules and telephone books between a desktop and notebook computer

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

examples for using irda1
Examples for Using IrDA
  • Send faxes from a notebook computer to a distant fax machine through a public telephone
  • Beaming images from a digital camera into a computer
  • Interconnecting local area networks. Maximum effective distance is somewhat under 1.5 miles

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

bluetooth
Bluetooth
  • Bluetooth is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and PDAs can easily interconnect with each other and with home and business phones and computers using a short-range wireless connection
  • Bluetooth requires that a low-cost transceiver chip be included in each device

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

expansion slots on the motherboard
Expansion Slots on the Motherboard
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Expansion Cards and Slots”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

buses
Buses
  • Data buses
    • Carries information in the form of bits around the motherboard
    • Two types: system and expansion
  • System bus
    • Electrical pathways which move information between RAM and CPU
    • The more bits that can travel together at one time, the faster the bus

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

expansion bus
Expansion Bus
  • Moves information coming from and going to devices outside the motherboard
  • Types of expansion buses
    • ISA (industry standard architecture)
    • PCI (peripheral component interconnect)
    • AGP (accelerated graphics port)

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

pci and agp busses
PCI and AGP Busses

p.6.180 Fig. 6.19

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 5 notebook computers
6.5 Notebook Computers
  • Notebook computer is smaller and power to run devices is limited
  • Biggest advantage is its portability
  • Electronic engineers work to reduce the power and size requirements of these computers

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

notebook computers cpus and ram
Notebook Computers CPUs and RAM
  • Notebook hardware has special features
  • A mobile CPU is a special type of CPU for a notebook computer that changes speed, and therefore power consumption, in response to fluctuations in demand
  • The CPU fan comes on only when the CPU gets too hot
  • RAM for a notebook looks a little different from desktop RAM

Notebook RAM

Desktop RAM

p. 6.181 Fig. 6.13 & 6.20

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

notebook computers expansion cards and slots
Notebook Computers – Expansion Cards and Slots
  • Devices are added to a notebook by sliding a PC card into the PC Card slot on the notebook, and connecting the device to the PC card
  • A PC Card is the expansion card used to add devices to notebook computers

p.6.181 Fig. 6.21

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 6 consumer q a
6.6 Consumer Q&A
  • Why Does My USB Device Not Work Right in My USB Port?
  • How Long Can I Expect My Notebook Battery to Last?
  • How Do I Connect Multiple Devices to a USB or Firewire Port?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 7 key terms
Bit

Bluetooth

Byte

Central processing unit

Connector

CPU cache

Expansion bus

Expansion card

Expansion slot

Gigahertz (GHz)

IrDA

Machine cycle

Megahertz (MHz)

Mobile CPU

PC Card

PC Card Slot

6.7 Key Terms

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 7 key terms1
Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) slot

Port

RAM

System bus

Virtual memory

6.7 Key Terms

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

review of concepts
Review of Concepts
  • Working with Nibbles
    • What’s less than a byte?
  • Comparing CPUs to the Human Body
  • Can You Identify Ports and Components?
    • Where would a DVD burner plug in?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects e commerce
Hands On ProjectsE-Commerce
  • Buying RAM
    • Is your software running slower than it should be?
  • Buying Devices with the Right Connectors
  • Buying Music
    • Get the best music from the Web

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects ethics security privacy
Hands On ProjectsEthics, Security & Privacy
  • Business Computers Classify You as Profitable – or Not
    • Should they be able to?
    • They want good customers – can computers help find bad ones?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects on the web
Hands On Projectson the Web
  • Compare Computer Systems
  • Getting the Right Video Card
    • At what cost?
  • Find Out about Wireless Devices
    • What’s available now?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects group activities
Hands On ProjectsGroup Activities
  • How Fast Is a Gigahertz?
    • How long would it take you to blink a gigahertz?
  • Visualize the Magnitude of Memory
    • How many megabytes are in a football field?
  • Play CPU Cycle
  • What Type of Connectors Come on What Devices?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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