computer architecture
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Computer Architecture

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 52

Computer Architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Computer Architecture. How Does a Computer Work? Chapter 6. Student Learning Outcomes. Identify the system unit as well as the motherboard with its components. Define ASCII and describe how information is represented inside a computer.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Computer Architecture' - verdi

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
computer architecture

Computer Architecture

How Does a Computer Work?

Chapter 6

student learning outcomes
Student Learning Outcomes
  • Identify the system unit as well as the motherboard with its components.
  • Define ASCII and describe how information is represented inside a computer.
  • Describe the role of the CPU, RAM, and CPU cycles in the functioning of a computer.
  • Define and explain the role of connectors, ports, expansion buses, expansion cards, and expansion slots.
  • Describe how you connect external devices to your computer.

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


At one of the spectrum a computer can be as big as a giant warehouse such as the Cray X1. At the other end of the spectrum is a tiny computer the size of a credit card being developed by Sharp. No matter how big or small computers are, they all have certain characteristics in common.

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

system unit
System Unit
  • System unit is the case or box in which the motherboard and storage units are housed

p. 6.162 Fig. 6-1

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 1 the big picture
6.1 The Big Picture







©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

the system unit
The System Unit
  • Motherboard is the large circuit board inside your system unit that holds the CPU, memory, and other essential electronic components
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD:

“The Motherboard” and “Inside the Computer”

p. 6.164 Fig. 6.3

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

system unit terminology

Port – Place through which information and instructions flow to your computer system

Connector - plug used to connect a device to a computer

CPU –Chip that carries out instructions it receives from the software

RAM – Temporary memory that holds software instructions and information for the CPU

System Unit Terminology

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

system unit terminology1

Expansion Slot – socket on the motherboard into which an expansion card is inserted

Expansion Card – Circuit board that is inserted into an expansion slot

Expansion Bus – highway system that moves information coming from & going to devices outside the motherboard

System Unit Terminology

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 2 representing information inside a computer
6.2 Representing Information Inside a Computer
  • Binary digit (bit) has two states - 0 or 1
  • By combining bits into groups of 8, we can represent letters, symbols, and numbers, like the word "cool" (below)
  • A group of 8 bits represents one natural language character and is called abyte

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ascii ebcidic and unicode
ASCII, EBCIDIC, and Unicode
  • ASCII—AmericanStandardCodeforInformationInterchange
      • Used on personal computers; eight-bit coding system; 256 different patterns
  • EBCDIC—ExtendedBinaryCodedDecimalInterchangeCode
      • Used by IBM mainframes; eight-bit coding system; 256 different patterns
  • Unicode—coding scheme capable of representing many languages
      • Usable on many computers; 16-bit coding system; approximately 65,000 patterns
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Data Representation Using Binary Codes”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ascii ebcdic binary representations
ASCII & EBCDIC Binary Representations

p. 6.168 Fig. 6.7

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 3 cpu ram and machine cycles
6.3 CPU, RAM, and Machine Cycles
  • Central processing unit (CPU or microprocessor or processor). Chip that carries out instructions it receives from your software
  • Random access memory (RAM) Temporary memory that holds software instructions and information for the CPU
  • Machine cycle (CPU cycle or clock cycle) consists of retrieving, decoding, and executing the instruction, and returning the result to RAM

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

central processing unit
Central Processing Unit

Chip that carries out instructions it receives

from your software

Role of the CPU is analogous to the role of

your brain – keeps everything functioning

as it’s supposed to

  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “The CPU”

p. 6.169 Fig. 6.3

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

random access memory ram

Work being






Strokes & Mouse


Random Access Memory (RAM)

OS Instructions

RAM Holds

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

machine cycle cpu cycle

1. Retrieve an

instruction from RAM

Machine cycle consists of:

4. Store the result


3. Execute the


2. Decode the


Machine Cycle (CPU Cycle)

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

how a cpu works
How a CPU Works

p. 6.170 Fig. 6.9

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

cpu clock
CPU Clock
  • Sliver of quartz that beats at regular intervals in response to an electrical charge
  • CPU clock keeps all the computer’s operations synchronized
  • Each tick of the CPU clock is called a clock cycle and is equivalent to a CPU cycle (machine cycle)
  • CPU uses the CPU clock to keep instructions and information flowing through your CPU at a fixed rate
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “System Clock”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

cpu clock1
CPU Clock

Each beat or tick of the

clock is called a CPU

cycle/machine cycle

CPU speed is quoted in

Megahertz (MHz = 1 million

CPU cycles per second) or

Gigahertz (GHz= 1 billiion

CPU cycles per second).

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

central processing unit1
Central Processing Unit
  • The faster a CPU is, the more heat it generates
  • A heat sink and a fan are necessary to cool the CPU down

CPU Cooling fan

CPU Heat Sink

p. 6.172 Fig. 6.11

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

classes of cpu s
Classes of CPU’s
  • Intel and AMD are two major manufacturers of CPUs for consumer computers
  • CPU speed and power continue to get faster
  • Higher-performance CPUs have top speeds and are the most expensive

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ram capacity
RAM Capacity
  • “Buy as much as you can afford”. For optimal performance purchase, more than the minimum specifications
  • 512 MB is standard on new computers – i.e. 512 million bytes
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Memory”

p.6.173 Fig. 6.13

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ram capacity how much do you need

Kilobyte (KB)

Megabytes (MB)

Gigabytes (GB)

Terabytes (TB)

Petabyte (PB)

Exabyte (EB)

= 8 bits

≈1 Thousand Bytes

≈ 1 Million Bytes

≈1 Billion Bytes

≈1 Trillion Bytes

≈1 quadrillion Bytes

≈1 quintillion Bytes

RAM Capacity: How Much Do You Need?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

ram and virtual memory
RAM and Virtual Memory
  • If your computer runs out of physical RAM space, it uses hard disk space as temporary RAM, which is called virtual memory
  • Virtual memory is slower than physical RAM because instructions temporarily stored on the hard disk must be moved into RAM as they are needed

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

how virtual ram works
How Virtual RAM Works

p.6.174 Fig. 6.14

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 4 making connections
6.4 Making Connections
  • Portsare places in a computer system where external devices are plugged in, and through which information and instructions flow into the computer system
  • Connectorsconsist of cables that are used to join peripheral to the computer. Common types of connectors:
    • USB
    • Firewire
    • Serial
    • PS/2
    • Parallel
    • RJ-45

p.6.175 Fig. 6.15

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

usb connectors and ports
USB Connectors and Ports
  • USB (Universal serial bus) connector – is a plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on device
  • With plug and play, a new device can be added to your computer without having to add an adapter card or even having to turn the computer off

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

firewire ieee 1394
Firewire (IEEE 1394)
  • Firewire (IEEE1394) although different from USB, allows you to connect hot-swap, plug and play devices to your computer
  • Firewire used mostly for video camcorders and digital video disk (DVD) players
  • A popular implementation of IEEE 1394 is Sony’s I-LINK

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

serial connectors and ports
Serial Connectors and Ports
  • Serial means one event at a time. It is usually contrasted with parallel, meaning more than one event happening at a time
  • In the context of computer hardware and data transmission, serial connection, operation, and media usually indicate a simpler, slower operation and parallel indicates a faster operation

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

parallel connectors and port s
Parallel Connectors and Ports
  • On a PC, the printer is usually attached through a parallel interface and cable so that it will print faster
  • Keyboard and mouse are one-way devices that only require a serial interface and line
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Ports and Cables”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

wireless ports
Wireless Ports
  • Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communications path

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

wireless ports cont
Wireless Ports – Cont.
  • Common examples of wireless equipment
    • Cellular phones
    • Global positioning systems
    • Cordless mouse
    • Wireless networks
    • Baby monitors
    • TV remote controls

p.6.178 Fig. 6.17

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

wireless ports1
Wireless Ports
  • IrDA (Infrared Data Association) port
    • Use infrared light to send and receive information
  • Bluetooth uses radio waves over distances of up to 30 feet

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

irda infrared data association
IrDA (Infrared Data Association)
  • In this form of radio transmission, a focused ray of light in the infrared frequency spectrum, measured in terahertz, or trillions of hertz (cycles per second), is modulated and sent from a relatively short distance
  • IrDa communications is playing an important role in wireless data communication due to the popularity of laptop computers, personal digital assistants, digital cameras, mobile telephones, pagers, and other devices

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

examples for using irda
Examples for Using IrDA
  • Exchange business cards between handheld PCs
  • Send a document from a notebook computer to a printer
  • Coordinate schedules and telephone books between a desktop and notebook computer

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

examples for using irda1
Examples for Using IrDA
  • Send faxes from a notebook computer to a distant fax machine through a public telephone
  • Beaming images from a digital camera into a computer
  • Interconnecting local area networks. Maximum effective distance is somewhat under 1.5 miles

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

  • Bluetooth is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and PDAs can easily interconnect with each other and with home and business phones and computers using a short-range wireless connection
  • Bluetooth requires that a low-cost transceiver chip be included in each device

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

expansion slots on the motherboard
Expansion Slots on the Motherboard
  • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Expansion Cards and Slots”

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

  • Data buses
    • Carries information in the form of bits around the motherboard
    • Two types: system and expansion
  • System bus
    • Electrical pathways which move information between RAM and CPU
    • The more bits that can travel together at one time, the faster the bus

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

expansion bus
Expansion Bus
  • Moves information coming from and going to devices outside the motherboard
  • Types of expansion buses
    • ISA (industry standard architecture)
    • PCI (peripheral component interconnect)
    • AGP (accelerated graphics port)

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

pci and agp busses
PCI and AGP Busses

p.6.180 Fig. 6.19

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 5 notebook computers
6.5 Notebook Computers
  • Notebook computer is smaller and power to run devices is limited
  • Biggest advantage is its portability
  • Electronic engineers work to reduce the power and size requirements of these computers

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

notebook computers cpus and ram
Notebook Computers CPUs and RAM
  • Notebook hardware has special features
  • A mobile CPU is a special type of CPU for a notebook computer that changes speed, and therefore power consumption, in response to fluctuations in demand
  • The CPU fan comes on only when the CPU gets too hot
  • RAM for a notebook looks a little different from desktop RAM

Notebook RAM

Desktop RAM

p. 6.181 Fig. 6.13 & 6.20

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

notebook computers expansion cards and slots
Notebook Computers – Expansion Cards and Slots
  • Devices are added to a notebook by sliding a PC card into the PC Card slot on the notebook, and connecting the device to the PC card
  • A PC Card is the expansion card used to add devices to notebook computers

p.6.181 Fig. 6.21

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 6 consumer q a
6.6 Consumer Q&A
  • Why Does My USB Device Not Work Right in My USB Port?
  • How Long Can I Expect My Notebook Battery to Last?
  • How Do I Connect Multiple Devices to a USB or Firewire Port?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 7 key terms



Central processing unit


CPU cache

Expansion bus

Expansion card

Expansion slot

Gigahertz (GHz)


Machine cycle

Megahertz (MHz)

Mobile CPU

PC Card

PC Card Slot

6.7 Key Terms

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

6 7 key terms1
Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) slot



System bus

Virtual memory

6.7 Key Terms

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

review of concepts
Review of Concepts
  • Working with Nibbles
    • What’s less than a byte?
  • Comparing CPUs to the Human Body
  • Can You Identify Ports and Components?
    • Where would a DVD burner plug in?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects e commerce
Hands On ProjectsE-Commerce
  • Buying RAM
    • Is your software running slower than it should be?
  • Buying Devices with the Right Connectors
  • Buying Music
    • Get the best music from the Web

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects ethics security privacy
Hands On ProjectsEthics, Security & Privacy
  • Business Computers Classify You as Profitable – or Not
    • Should they be able to?
    • They want good customers – can computers help find bad ones?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects on the web
Hands On Projectson the Web
  • Compare Computer Systems
  • Getting the Right Video Card
    • At what cost?
  • Find Out about Wireless Devices
    • What’s available now?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies

hands on projects group activities
Hands On ProjectsGroup Activities
  • How Fast Is a Gigahertz?
    • How long would it take you to blink a gigahertz?
  • Visualize the Magnitude of Memory
    • How many megabytes are in a football field?
  • Play CPU Cycle
  • What Type of Connectors Come on What Devices?

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies