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Computer Architecture. How Does a Computer Work? Chapter 6. Student Learning Outcomes. Identify the system unit as well as the motherboard with its components. Define ASCII and describe how information is represented inside a computer.

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Computer architecture

Computer Architecture

How Does a Computer Work?

Chapter 6


Student learning outcomes
Student Learning Outcomes

  • Identify the system unit as well as the motherboard with its components.

  • Define ASCII and describe how information is represented inside a computer.

  • Describe the role of the CPU, RAM, and CPU cycles in the functioning of a computer.

  • Define and explain the role of connectors, ports, expansion buses, expansion cards, and expansion slots.

  • Describe how you connect external devices to your computer.

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


Introduction
Introduction

At one of the spectrum a computer can be as big as a giant warehouse such as the Cray X1. At the other end of the spectrum is a tiny computer the size of a credit card being developed by Sharp. No matter how big or small computers are, they all have certain characteristics in common.

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


System unit
System Unit

  • System unit is the case or box in which the motherboard and storage units are housed

p. 6.162 Fig. 6-1

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


6 1 the big picture
6.1 The Big Picture

Input

Data

Process

Data

Output

Information

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


The system unit
The System Unit

  • Motherboard is the large circuit board inside your system unit that holds the CPU, memory, and other essential electronic components

  • CAN YOU NAME THE PARTS?

  • SimNet Concepts Support CD:

    “The Motherboard” and “Inside the Computer”

p. 6.164 Fig. 6.3

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


System unit terminology

Port – Place through which information and instructions flow to your computer system

Connector - plug used to connect a device to a computer

CPU –Chip that carries out instructions it receives from the software

RAM – Temporary memory that holds software instructions and information for the CPU

System Unit Terminology

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


System unit terminology1

Expansion Slot – socket on the motherboard into which an expansion card is inserted

Expansion Card – Circuit board that is inserted into an expansion slot

Expansion Bus – highway system that moves information coming from & going to devices outside the motherboard

System Unit Terminology

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


6 2 representing information inside a computer
6.2 Representing Information Inside a Computer

  • Binary digit (bit) has two states - 0 or 1

  • By combining bits into groups of 8, we can represent letters, symbols, and numbers, like the word "cool" (below)

  • A group of 8 bits represents one natural language character and is called abyte

©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


Ascii ebcidic and unicode
ASCII, EBCIDIC, and Unicode

  • ASCII—AmericanStandardCodeforInformationInterchange

    • Used on personal computers; eight-bit coding system; 256 different patterns

  • EBCDIC—ExtendedBinaryCodedDecimalInterchangeCode

    • Used by IBM mainframes; eight-bit coding system; 256 different patterns

  • Unicode—coding scheme capable of representing many languages

    • Usable on many computers; 16-bit coding system; approximately 65,000 patterns

    • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Data Representation Using Binary Codes”

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Ascii ebcdic binary representations
    ASCII & EBCDIC Binary Representations

    p. 6.168 Fig. 6.7

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    6 3 cpu ram and machine cycles
    6.3 CPU, RAM, and Machine Cycles

    • Central processing unit (CPU or microprocessor or processor). Chip that carries out instructions it receives from your software

    • Random access memory (RAM) Temporary memory that holds software instructions and information for the CPU

    • Machine cycle (CPU cycle or clock cycle) consists of retrieving, decoding, and executing the instruction, and returning the result to RAM

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Central processing unit
    Central Processing Unit

    Chip that carries out instructions it receives

    from your software

    Role of the CPU is analogous to the role of

    your brain – keeps everything functioning

    as it’s supposed to

    • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “The CPU”

    p. 6.169 Fig. 6.3

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Random access memory ram

    Work being

    created

    Application

    Software

    instructions

    Keyboard

    Strokes & Mouse

    Movements

    Random Access Memory (RAM)

    OS Instructions

    RAM Holds

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Machine cycle cpu cycle

    1. Retrieve an

    instruction from RAM

    Machine cycle consists of:

    4. Store the result

    In RAM

    3. Execute the

    instruction

    2. Decode the

    instruction

    Machine Cycle (CPU Cycle)

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    How a cpu works
    How a CPU Works

    p. 6.170 Fig. 6.9

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Cpu clock
    CPU Clock

    • Sliver of quartz that beats at regular intervals in response to an electrical charge

    • CPU clock keeps all the computer’s operations synchronized

    • Each tick of the CPU clock is called a clock cycle and is equivalent to a CPU cycle (machine cycle)

    • CPU uses the CPU clock to keep instructions and information flowing through your CPU at a fixed rate

    • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “System Clock”

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Cpu clock1
    CPU Clock

    Each beat or tick of the

    clock is called a CPU

    cycle/machine cycle

    CPU speed is quoted in

    Megahertz (MHz = 1 million

    CPU cycles per second) or

    Gigahertz (GHz= 1 billiion

    CPU cycles per second).

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Central processing unit1
    Central Processing Unit

    • The faster a CPU is, the more heat it generates

    • A heat sink and a fan are necessary to cool the CPU down

    CPU Cooling fan

    CPU Heat Sink

    p. 6.172 Fig. 6.11

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Classes of cpu s
    Classes of CPU’s

    • Intel and AMD are two major manufacturers of CPUs for consumer computers

    • CPU speed and power continue to get faster

    • Higher-performance CPUs have top speeds and are the most expensive

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Ram capacity
    RAM Capacity

    • “Buy as much as you can afford”. For optimal performance purchase, more than the minimum specifications

    • 512 MB is standard on new computers – i.e. 512 million bytes

    • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Memory”

    p.6.173 Fig. 6.13

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Ram capacity how much do you need

    Byte

    Kilobyte (KB)

    Megabytes (MB)

    Gigabytes (GB)

    Terabytes (TB)

    Petabyte (PB)

    Exabyte (EB)

    = 8 bits

    ≈1 Thousand Bytes

    ≈ 1 Million Bytes

    ≈1 Billion Bytes

    ≈1 Trillion Bytes

    ≈1 quadrillion Bytes

    ≈1 quintillion Bytes

    RAM Capacity: How Much Do You Need?

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Ram and virtual memory
    RAM and Virtual Memory

    • If your computer runs out of physical RAM space, it uses hard disk space as temporary RAM, which is called virtual memory

    • Virtual memory is slower than physical RAM because instructions temporarily stored on the hard disk must be moved into RAM as they are needed

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    How virtual ram works
    How Virtual RAM Works

    p.6.174 Fig. 6.14

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    6 4 making connections
    6.4 Making Connections

    • Portsare places in a computer system where external devices are plugged in, and through which information and instructions flow into the computer system

    • Connectorsconsist of cables that are used to join peripheral to the computer. Common types of connectors:

      • USB

      • Firewire

      • Serial

      • PS/2

      • Parallel

      • RJ-45

    p.6.175 Fig. 6.15

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Usb connectors and ports
    USB Connectors and Ports

    • USB (Universal serial bus) connector – is a plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on device

    • With plug and play, a new device can be added to your computer without having to add an adapter card or even having to turn the computer off

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Firewire ieee 1394
    Firewire (IEEE 1394)

    • Firewire (IEEE1394) although different from USB, allows you to connect hot-swap, plug and play devices to your computer

    • Firewire used mostly for video camcorders and digital video disk (DVD) players

    • A popular implementation of IEEE 1394 is Sony’s I-LINK

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Serial connectors and ports
    Serial Connectors and Ports

    • Serial means one event at a time. It is usually contrasted with parallel, meaning more than one event happening at a time

    • In the context of computer hardware and data transmission, serial connection, operation, and media usually indicate a simpler, slower operation and parallel indicates a faster operation

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Parallel connectors and port s
    Parallel Connectors and Ports

    • On a PC, the printer is usually attached through a parallel interface and cable so that it will print faster

    • Keyboard and mouse are one-way devices that only require a serial interface and line

    • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Ports and Cables”

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Wireless ports
    Wireless Ports

    • Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal over part or all of the communications path

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Wireless ports cont
    Wireless Ports – Cont.

    • Common examples of wireless equipment

      • Cellular phones

      • Global positioning systems

      • Cordless mouse

      • Wireless networks

      • Baby monitors

      • TV remote controls

    p.6.178 Fig. 6.17

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Wireless ports1
    Wireless Ports

    • IrDA (Infrared Data Association) port

      • Use infrared light to send and receive information

    • Bluetooth uses radio waves over distances of up to 30 feet

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Irda infrared data association
    IrDA (Infrared Data Association)

    • In this form of radio transmission, a focused ray of light in the infrared frequency spectrum, measured in terahertz, or trillions of hertz (cycles per second), is modulated and sent from a relatively short distance

    • IrDa communications is playing an important role in wireless data communication due to the popularity of laptop computers, personal digital assistants, digital cameras, mobile telephones, pagers, and other devices

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Examples for using irda
    Examples for Using IrDA

    • Exchange business cards between handheld PCs

    • Send a document from a notebook computer to a printer

    • Coordinate schedules and telephone books between a desktop and notebook computer

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Examples for using irda1
    Examples for Using IrDA

    • Send faxes from a notebook computer to a distant fax machine through a public telephone

    • Beaming images from a digital camera into a computer

    • Interconnecting local area networks. Maximum effective distance is somewhat under 1.5 miles

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Bluetooth
    Bluetooth

    • Bluetooth is a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and PDAs can easily interconnect with each other and with home and business phones and computers using a short-range wireless connection

    • Bluetooth requires that a low-cost transceiver chip be included in each device

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Expansion slots on the motherboard
    Expansion Slots on the Motherboard

    • SimNet Concepts Support CD: “Expansion Cards and Slots”

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Buses
    Buses

    • Data buses

      • Carries information in the form of bits around the motherboard

      • Two types: system and expansion

    • System bus

      • Electrical pathways which move information between RAM and CPU

      • The more bits that can travel together at one time, the faster the bus

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Expansion bus
    Expansion Bus

    • Moves information coming from and going to devices outside the motherboard

    • Types of expansion buses

      • ISA (industry standard architecture)

      • PCI (peripheral component interconnect)

      • AGP (accelerated graphics port)

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Pci and agp busses
    PCI and AGP Busses

    p.6.180 Fig. 6.19

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    6 5 notebook computers
    6.5 Notebook Computers

    • Notebook computer is smaller and power to run devices is limited

    • Biggest advantage is its portability

    • Electronic engineers work to reduce the power and size requirements of these computers

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Notebook computers cpus and ram
    Notebook Computers CPUs and RAM

    • Notebook hardware has special features

    • A mobile CPU is a special type of CPU for a notebook computer that changes speed, and therefore power consumption, in response to fluctuations in demand

    • The CPU fan comes on only when the CPU gets too hot

    • RAM for a notebook looks a little different from desktop RAM

    Notebook RAM

    Desktop RAM

    p. 6.181 Fig. 6.13 & 6.20

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Notebook computers expansion cards and slots
    Notebook Computers – Expansion Cards and Slots

    • Devices are added to a notebook by sliding a PC card into the PC Card slot on the notebook, and connecting the device to the PC card

    • A PC Card is the expansion card used to add devices to notebook computers

    p.6.181 Fig. 6.21

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies



    6 6 consumer q a
    6.6 Consumer Q&A

    • Why Does My USB Device Not Work Right in My USB Port?

    • How Long Can I Expect My Notebook Battery to Last?

    • How Do I Connect Multiple Devices to a USB or Firewire Port?

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    6 7 key terms

    Bit

    Bluetooth

    Byte

    Central processing unit

    Connector

    CPU cache

    Expansion bus

    Expansion card

    Expansion slot

    Gigahertz (GHz)

    IrDA

    Machine cycle

    Megahertz (MHz)

    Mobile CPU

    PC Card

    PC Card Slot

    6.7 Key Terms

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    6 7 key terms1

    Peripheral component interconnect (PCI) slot

    Port

    RAM

    System bus

    Virtual memory

    6.7 Key Terms

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Review of concepts
    Review of Concepts

    • Working with Nibbles

      • What’s less than a byte?

    • Comparing CPUs to the Human Body

    • Can You Identify Ports and Components?

      • Where would a DVD burner plug in?

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Hands on projects e commerce
    Hands On ProjectsE-Commerce

    • Buying RAM

      • Is your software running slower than it should be?

    • Buying Devices with the Right Connectors

    • Buying Music

      • Get the best music from the Web

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Hands on projects ethics security privacy
    Hands On ProjectsEthics, Security & Privacy

    • Business Computers Classify You as Profitable – or Not

      • Should they be able to?

      • They want good customers – can computers help find bad ones?

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Hands on projects on the web
    Hands On Projectson the Web

    • Compare Computer Systems

    • Getting the Right Video Card

      • At what cost?

    • Find Out about Wireless Devices

      • What’s available now?

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


    Hands on projects group activities
    Hands On ProjectsGroup Activities

    • How Fast Is a Gigahertz?

      • How long would it take you to blink a gigahertz?

    • Visualize the Magnitude of Memory

      • How many megabytes are in a football field?

    • Play CPU Cycle

    • What Type of Connectors Come on What Devices?

    ©2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies


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