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Objective 5. Infection Control. Microorganisms / Microbes. Small living organisms invisible to the naked eye Some beneficial…some pathogenic while some helpful Types: bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsiae , virus Anaerobic organisms: live without oxygen (treat with hyperbaric pressure)

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Objective 5

Objective 5

Infection Control


Microorganisms microbes
Microorganisms / Microbes

Small living organisms invisible to the naked eye

Some beneficial…some pathogenic while some helpful

Types: bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsiae, virus

Anaerobic organisms: live without oxygen (treat with hyperbaric pressure)

Aerobic: need oxygen to live


Types of infection
Types of Infection

  • Pathogenic

  • Opportunistic

    • Occurs when immune system is compromised (i.e. Aids patients)

  • Nosocomial

    • Acquired while hospitalized


Bacteria
Bacteria

One celled that multiply rapidly

Classified by shape and arrangement

Diseases: necrotizing fascitis,

TB (airborne), gonorrhea,

chlamydia


Protozoa
Protozoa

  • One celled often found in decaying materials and contaminated water

  • May contain flagella which aid in movement

  • Some are pathogenic

    • i.e. malaria, trichomonas


Fungi
Fungi

Plantlike organism that lives on

dead, organic matter

Some pathogenic: yeast, mold

Diseases from fungi: thrush (candidaalbicans), ringworm, athletes foot

Cannot be killed by antibiotics


Rickettsaie
Rickettsaie

Micro-parasite that lives within an organism

Commonly found in fleas, ticks, and mites

Transmitted by bite of organism

Common diseases: typhus fever, rocky mountain spotted fever

Many killed with antibiotics


Virus
Virus

Smallest living organism

Lives in other living things

Cannot reproduce without being

in another living cell

Spread by blood and bodily fluids

Difficult to kill…not antibiotics…many resistant to disinfectants

i.e. hepatitis, Aids, rhino virus


Standard precautions
Standard Precautions

  • Breaks the chain of infection

    • Most important step in preventing infection is handwashing

    • i.e. mouth pieces used in cpr prevent contamination

  • Also called Universal Precautions

  • Barriers used on every patient where there may be blood or body fluid exposure

  • i.e. gloves, mask gown (PPE = personal protective equipment)


Types of precautions
Types of Precautions

Standard – Universal precautions

Contact – gloves, gown

Respiratory (system with portals of entry) – respirator mask

Droplet – requires PPE within 3 feet of patient


Isolation
Isolation

Isolation precautions may be needed (2 persons needed to transfer things out of an isolation unit)

Protective / Reverse isolation – protects patients who are immunocompromised


Osha standards
OSHA Standards

  • Developed standards concerning standard precaution guidelines

  • Page 136 in resource guide…Standard precautions rules developed by the FDA and CDC

  • Complete Infection Control Review

    • pg 138 in resource guide


Disinfection
Disinfection

Used for aseptic control…however does not kill spores or viruses

Typically used for instruments or items that do not penetrate body tissue (i.e. percussion hammers, thermometers)


Disinfection cont d
Disinfection cont’d

  • Usually a chemical

    • 90% isopropyl alcohol (antisepsis….inhibiting microbial growth…alcohol swab)

    • 10% bleach solution

    • Lysol

    • 15 – 30 mins in boiling water

    • Time needed for disinfection action of a particular chemical is on the label…read a label 3 times before use!

  • Ultrasonic unit commonly used in dental and medical offices to disinfect

    • Uses sound waves to create millions of bubbles

    • Bubbles then hit an instrument and explode driving cleaning solution into instrument


Autoclave
Autoclave

Steam under pressure

Destroys ALL microbes (including spores and viruses)


Autoclave cont d
Autoclave cont’d

Instruments must be clean and wrapped in a steam-penetrating material with an indicator strip included or wrapped around wrapping

May not be used on instruments that are sensitive to steam / water (i.e. reflex hammers…due to the rubber tip)


Sterilization
Sterilization

Frees objects from ALL microorganisms

Autoclave is a type of sterilization

Sterile = free from all microogranisms

Contaminated = organisms / pathogens are present


Sterile field
Sterile Field

Area free from all pathogens

Need clean working area to open / work with sterile package or equipment

Do not reach over sterile field

1 – 2 inch border considered contaminated


Sterile field cont d
Sterile Field cont’d

Never turn your back on a sterile field

Sterile gloves are contaminated on the inside


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