Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 22

Cosmology PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Cosmology. Physics466. Olbers Paradox Cosmological principle Expansion of the Universe Big Bang Theory Steady State Model Dark Matter Dark Energy Structure Formation. Cosmological Principle. On large scales (greater than 100 Mpc) the Universe is homogenious and isotropic

Download Presentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript



Olbers Paradox

Cosmological principle

Expansion of the Universe

Big Bang Theory

Steady State Model

Dark Matter

Dark Energy

Structure Formation

Cosmological Principle

  • On large scales (greater than 100 Mpc) the Universe is homogenious and isotropic

  • The Earth is not at a preferred place (Copernican Principle)

  • Homogenious: Every point is equivalent

  • Isotropic: Every direction is equivalent

Homogeneity does not imply isotropy

Homogeneity does not imply isotropy

Cosmological Principle (cont)

Isotropy and Homogeneity

  • Homogeneous -> we see no difference when we change position; there is no preferred position in the universe (translational invariance)

  • Isotropic -> no difference when we look at a different direction

  • Examples: Surface of uniform cylinder is homogeneous but not isotropic- what about the surface of a sphere – or chessboard ?

  • Cosmological Principle (CP)-> universe is homogeneous and isotropic (at a given cosmological time)


  • Cosmological principle means that physical laws are assumed to be the same everywhere, too

  • The cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity, like other scientific hypotheses, is testable by confrontation with data.

  • So far, observations support this hypothesis


Galaxies arranged in superclusters that appear as long sheets surrounded by voids

Cosmological Principle Tested

The Perfect Cosmological Principle

Perfect Cosmological Principle

  • What about time? Every “time” equivalent?

  • The Universe is homogenious and isotropic in space and time.

  • The universe looks the same everywhere (on the large scale) as it always has and always will.

  • The evolution of Galaxies does not confirm this principle. The universe seems to evolve.

Olbers’ Paradox (1826)

  • Consider a static, infinite universe of stars

  • Every line of sight would end in a star

  • Then why isn't the night sky bright?

  • Mathematically, radiative flux drops by r-2 but the number of stars in a volume increases with r3.

  • So the night sky should be bright if the Universe is sufficiently large!'_paradox

Olbers’ Paradox in another way

There will be a tree at every line of direction

if the forest is sufficiently large

Olbers’ Paradox

  • A star filled spherical shell, of radius r, and thickness dr, centered on the Earth.

Possible Explanations

  • There's too much dust to see the distant stars.

  • The Universe has only a finite number of stars.

  • The distribution of stars is not uniform.  So, for example, there could be an infinity of stars,but they hide behind one another so that only a finite angular area is subtended by them.

  • The Universe is expanding, so distant stars are red-shifted into obscurity.

  • The Universe is young.  Distant light hasn't even reached us yet.

Correct Answer(s)

  • The Universe is expanding

  • The Universe is young

  • In fact the sky is ablaze, but the temperature of the radiation is only 2.7 K (CMBR)

  • All starlight ever emitted amounts only to a few percent of the CMBR energy density.

The Universe is young

  • We live inside a spherical shell of "Observable Universe" which has radius equal to the lifetime of the Universe. 

  • Objects more than about 13.7 thousand million years old (the latest figure) are too far away for their light ever to reach us.

  • Redshift effect certainly contributes.  But the finite age of the Universe is the most important effect.

References: Wesson, 1991, ApJ. 367, 399

  • Login