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The Federalist Era. 1789 - 1800. Washington’s First Term. Problems facing G. Washington: 1. Economic: Debts Depression 2. Foreign English - Indian alliance French – British rivalry 3. Political division Hamilton vs. Jefferson. Washington’s First Cabinet.

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The Federalist Era

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The federalist era

The Federalist Era

1789 - 1800

Washington s first term

Washington’s First Term

Problems facing G. Washington:

1. Economic:



2. Foreign

English - Indian alliance

French – British rivalry

3. Political division

Hamilton vs. Jefferson

Washington s first cabinet

Washington’s First Cabinet

Henry Knox: Secretary of War

John Adams: Vice President

Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of the Treasury

Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State

The political division

The Federalists:


Pro-England (due to trade needs)

High tariffs and excise taxes (i.e. whiskey)

Strong centralized government

Favored the wealthy

The Democratic-Republicans:



Opposed to taxes

Strong State governments

Favored the middle and lower classes

The Political Division

Hamilton s financial system

Hamilton’s Financial System

“Trickle down” economics

favor the wealthy and economic growth will “trickle down” to the masses

“Funding at par”

pay all bond debts at 100% of its value

“Assumption” of States’ debts

Federal government should pay all of State’s bond debts; ensures loyalty of the wealthier classes.

High tariffs and excise tax on whiskey

The bank of the united states hamilton s view

The Bank of the United States(Hamilton’s view)

Would provide a safe place to keep tax revenue for the US government

Would regulate banks

Would provide low-interest loans to industrial classes

The bank of the united states jefferson s view

The Bank of the United States(Jefferson’s View)

Tax system hurt the farming classes

Money lent to industrialists came from farming classes



Reactions to the bank bus

Reactions to the Bank (BUS)

  • Washington sides with Hamilton

  • Jefferson and Madison form an opposition party (the Democrat-Republicans)

The whiskey rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion

Revolt caused by farmers/whiskey producers angry about the tax on whiskey

Revolt put down by Washington

Shows the strength of the new Constitution

The french are revolting

The French are Revolting!

  • Split between the Feds and DRs

  • Split within the government

    Hamilton – opposes supporting the revolutionaries

    Jefferson – wants

    support for the


The proclamation of neutrality 1793

The Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)

  • Authored by Hamilton

  • Issued by Washington

  • Led to the precedent of

    non-involvement and

    neutrality in foreign affairs

More problems with the british

More Problems with the British

  • Impressment of American sailors;

Seizure of American ships and cargo; act of war by the British

Indian uprisings

Indian Uprisings

  • Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794)

  • Evidence of British

    aid and involvement

  • Violation of Treaty

    of Paris (1783)

Jay s treaty

Jay’s Treaty

  • Washington’s dilemma:

    War or Diplomacy

John Jay sent to negotiate new treaty

Action very unpopular with many Americans;

Hamilton’s “betrayal” leads to very weak treaty;

The retirement of george washington

The Retirement of George Washington

  • Precedents set by GW:

    • Two term tradition

    • Use of the Cabinet

    • Neutrality in foreign matters

The farewell address

The Farewell Address

  • December, 1796

  • Authored by Hamilton

  • Emphasized neutrality in foreign affairs

  • “they (the US) should with sincerity

    and good faith adopt and pursue a

    conduct friendly and impartial toward

    the belligerent Powers.”

The election of 1796

The Federalists

Strong central govt.



The Dem. Republicans

Strong State govts.



The Election of 1796

The election of 17961

The Election of 1796


Jay’s Treaty

Hamilton’s financial system

Foreign policy


Adams – Pres.

Jefferson – VP

The xyz affair

The XYZ Affair

American diplomats extorted for a bribe from unknown French diplomats

US rejects demands, leaves France

Reaction to the xyz affair

Reaction to the XYZ Affair

  • Federalists pressure Adams to pursue war

    Adams resists, but unofficial “war” breaks out in the Caribbean; two year conflict with France begins

The alien and sedition acts passed by federalist congress

The Alien Acts

Deports nonresidents supportive of the French

Aimed at newly arrived immigrants, primarily DR supporters

The Sedition Acts

Made criticism of the war, the President, or the Congress illegal

Aimed at DRs, incl. Jefferson and Madison

The Alien and Sedition ActsPassed by Federalist Congress

Controversy over the acts

Controversy over the Acts

The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Proposed by Jefferson and Madison to oppose A & S Acts

Doctrine of nullification: States can counteract or not enforce federal laws

America in 1800

America in 1800

  • Government Democrat-Republicans divided by Federalists and

  • “War” with France

  • VP an outlaw

  • Divided country

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