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CLASSROOM UNSQUARED. EARTH MATERIALS EQ:What materials compose the Earth?. Leave no Tern Unstoned!. Ouch. TERN. Earth Material ’ s Chemistry. Naturally-occurring elements and compounds are called minerals .

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Leave no

Tern

Unstoned!

Ouch

TERN

earth material s chemistry

Earth Material’s Chemistry

Naturally-occurring elements and compounds are called minerals.

Naturally occurring mixtures of minerals, large deposits of single minerals, or organic materials are called rocks.

properties of minerals

Properties of Minerals

Inorganic

Crystalline or amorphous

Chemical composition

Luster (metallic or nonmetallic)

Color

Hardness (1-10 Moh’s scale)

Streak (color of powdered mineral)

Specific Gravity

Special – magnetic, reacts with acid, ore

mineralogy

Silicates

  • Quartz group (SiO2) Ex. agate, jasper, chert, amethyst, opal
  • Olivine (Mg,Fe,Mn,Ni)2SiO4
  • Pyroxene (various -Si2O6 compounds, mostly Fe and Mg)
  • Amphibole (various –Si8O22 compounds)
  • Feldspar (various –Si3O8 compounds, mostly Ca, Na, K)
  • Garnet (various –SiO4 compounds)
  • Mica (various –AlSi3O10 compounds)
  • Native elements Ex. Cu, Ag, Au, S, C (diamond or graphite)
  • Sulfides Ex. FeS2 pyrite, PbS galena
  • Oxides Ex. MagnetiteFe3O4, cuprite Cu2O, hematite Fe2O3
  • Halides Ex. NaCl Halite
  • Carbonates Ex. CaCO3 calcite, limestone or azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
  • Sulfates Ex. CaSO4.2H2O gypsum
  • Phosphates ( -PO4 compounds)

Mineralogy

HELP…THIS IS BORINGGGGGGGGG !!

STILL BORING !!!!!!!!!!

slide6

Rocks (Petrology)

Types: Igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary

Varying chemistry (minerals: natural compounds)

Varying textures

Crystalline

Foliated

Clastic

Varying structures

Strata

Massive

Cross-cutting

Varying ages (relative and absolute age-dating)

Sedimentary: when deposited

Igneous: age starts when freezes

Metamorphic: when altered by heat/pressure

rock texture crystalline thin sections

Granite (4 minerals)

Rock Texture: CrystallineThin Sections:

Dolomite (( Ca, Mg) CO3)

Igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary

rock texture foliated thin sections

Phyllite

Schist

Rock Texture: FoliatedThin Sections:

Metamorphic

rock texture clastic thin sections

Sandstone (SiO2 -quartz)

Rock Texture: ClasticThin Sections:

Shale (quartz + clay minerals)

Sedimentary

structure

Massive

Igneous or sometimes Sedimentary

Structure

structure1

Deformed strata or foliation

Sedimentary or Metamorphic

Structure

what are some online resources

What are some online resources?

http://teacherfriendlyguide.org

http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Home.jsp

http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/index.html

http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0610/es0610page02.cfm

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