Chapter 6
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Chapter 6. How Animals Stay Alive?. Digestion 消化. Respiration 呼吸. Circulation 循環. Life activities. Water Balance 水分的平衡. Excretion 排泄. Coordination 協調. Pg. 115. L1 動物如何攝食及消化食物 ?. Pg. 116.  Different animals have different ways of getting food.

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Chapter 6

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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

How Animals Stay Alive?

Digestion

消化

Respiration

呼吸

Circulation

循環

Life activities

Water Balance

水分的平衡

Excretion

排泄

Coordination

協調

Pg. 115


Chapter 6

L1 動物如何攝食及消化食物?

Pg. 116

Different animals have different ways of getting food.

Many animals that live in water get food by filtering,

or straining, it.  filter feeding濾食

Ex: sponges, barnacles 藤壺, mollusks, even whales

Fluid 液體、汁液

Feed on…以...為食物

Some animals get food from the fluids of plants or

other animals. The fluids are rich in nutrients(養分).

Ex: Aphids蚜蟲, cicadas蟬, nectar 花蜜, leeches水蛭


Chapter 6

Consuming Large Pieces Food

Pg. 117

Animals that eat plants are known as

herbivores(草食動物).

Ex: grasshopper蚱蜢, termite白蟻, beetle甲蟲

Animals that eat other animals are called

carnivores(肉食動物).

Ex:dragonfly蜻蜓, praying mantis螳螂

 Vertebrates are the only animals that have teeth.

Chisel鑿子


Chapter 6

Digesting Food

Pg. 118

Secrete 分泌: 形成並釋放, 或是發散

Enzyme 酵素: 一種可以加速化學變化的物質

Gastrovascular cavity消化循環腔: 一有單一出口的消化空間

 The process of breaking down food into small

chemicals is digestion.

Sponge在細胞內消化食物, 這有什麼壞處(drawback)?

Most other animals digest their food outside of cells.

Gastrovascular cavity

Single opening: the mouth


Chapter 6

Pg. 119

Digestive Tracts 消化管(道)

一個兩端都有開口的管狀的消化空間

Animals that are more developed have a

digestive tract. 較為進化的動物有消化管

The main functions of digestive tracts are

1storing food儲存食物, 2digesting food消化食物,

and 3absorbing nutrients吸收養分.

沙囊

食道

嗉囊

肛門


Chapter 6

L2 Respiration & Circulation

呼吸和循環

Pg. 123

The process of gas exchange is called

respiration.

Animals respire, or take in oxygen and

give off carbon dioxide, in different ways.

Gas Exchange in Simple Animals

 Diffusion擴散

分子由濃度高處

往濃度低處移動

水中的氧氣濃度高於生物

體內細胞的氧氣濃度


Chapter 6

Gas Exchange in Other Animals

Pg. 124

大多數動物並不是只有兩層細胞的厚度,他們的

細胞並不能直接和外在環境進行氣體交換。他們

必須有一個特別的器官來進行氣體交換的工作。

生活在水裡的動物通常都有gills

Feathery structure

Other animals: Lung

Insects: 使用一管狀系統將空氣帶入體內,

這些管子的入口遍佈昆蟲全身,且有許多細小

分支幾乎到達所有的細胞。


Chapter 6

Pg. 125

Circulatory Systems 循環系統

: moves blood through the body

Flowing in a circle

A set of tubes  blood vessels

Pump(s)  hearts

Annelid:

環節動物

The blood stays inside

vessels at all times.

The blood flows slowly

through the spaces and

makes direct contact with cells.


Chapter 6

Vertebrate Circulatory Systems

Pg. 126

Fish: 1 atrium, 1 ventricle

右心房

Amphibians & reptiles:

2 atrium, 1 ventricle

右心室

Birds, mammals, and

Some reptiles:

2 atrium, 2 ventricles.

Chamber 腔室


Chapter 6

L3 水分的平衡與廢物

Pg. 128

Excrete 排泄

Seawater = water + salt

Fluids of animals contain water and salt

Fluid: more salt, lower water concentration

Review: Osmosis It can cause problems

if too much water gets into an animal

How do most sea invertebrates avoid getting

too much water in their bodies?

How about cartilage fish?

How about bony fish, whose body fluid

have a higher water concentration than

seawater?


Chapter 6

Water Balance in Freshwater淡水

Pg. 129

生活在淡水中的動物有太多的水流入他們身體, why?

How do they deal with this?

淡水動物利用特別的器官來移除過量的物質或是

過多的水,例如扁蟲類動物在他們全身佈滿了小

小管子,這些管子連通到一種叫做flame cell焰細胞

的構造。Flame cell會收集flatworm體內多餘的水分,

其中的cilia會沿著管子推動水分子, 水會從體壁上

的開口(孔)離開。

Flame cell 焰細胞


Chapter 6

Freshwater bony fish & bony fish in the sea

have opposite problems.

To get rid of the excess water, the fish use

their kidney to excrete urine尿.

注意淡水魚對鹽分的攝取

與排出是從何處?

urine

Kidney腎

Pg. 129


Chapter 6

Water Balance on Land

Pg. 130-131

陸地上的動物擔心的是什麼呢?Dry out!

So, animals have ways to limit water loss.

But HOW?

Land snail? Insect? Reptiles, birds, mammals?

The entire body of a land animal cannot be

watertight. Animals need to respire. 氣體交換、

尿液、糞便、及流汗也會讓動物失去水分。

Drinking water!!!

Kangaroo rat?

Excreting Wastes

Ammonia 氨NH3

Kidney是mammals &

birds維持水分平衡的主要器官


Chapter 6

Pg. 133

Endocrine System

L4協調身體的活動

內分泌

Nervous System

Coordinate: work together

Chemical

Hormone 荷爾蒙

Specificity:專一性

Endocrine System

Vasopressin垂體後葉荷爾蒙

Hormone的作用是緩

慢進行的,例如青蛙

變成蝌蚪的這個變態的

過程,就是由於hormone的作用。

循環系統

腺體

Hormone一定是從腺體分泌

之後作用到細胞或器官上。

荷爾蒙和其作用的

細胞有專一性


Chapter 6

Nervous System

Pg. 134

The nervous system carries its messages

directly to parts of the body. 不需要循環系統幫助

impulse 神經衝動

neurotransmitter

神經傳導物質

Impulses travel quickly along nerve cells. 120 m/sec

The nervous system is suited to control activities that

happen quickly.


Chapter 6

Invertebrate Nervous Systems

Pg. 135

Except for sponges, all animals have a nervous system.

Cnidarians: nerve net

Flatworms, segmented worms, & arthropods具有可以

感覺環境的構造;如眼睛和觸鬚,也有clusters of

nerve cells (就像個簡單的腦的構造)

Invertebrate中,squids &

octopuses有最發達的神經系統


Chapter 6

Pg. 136

The Vertebrate Nervous System

Central nervous system: brain & spinal cord (CNS)

Peripheral nervous system: nerves (PNS)

skull

Bones protect the brain

& the spinal cord.

backbone

Nerves pass through holes

in the skull and backbone.


Chapter 6

Pg. 137

Comparing Vertebrate Brains

Cerebrum大腦

Cerebrum掌控 thought, memory, & learning.

The more nerve cells an animal has,

the more it can learn and remember.

Chapter 6 Review:

11~18

BACD BDAB


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