Vegetative parts of plants
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Vegetative Parts of Plants. Spring 2012. Descriptive Terminology. LEARN DESCRIPTIVE TERMINOLOGY = PHYTOGRAPHY - Vegetative - Floral/inflorescence - Fruit ASSOCIATE STRUCTURES WITH TERMS - Significant range of variation - Learn to identify major structures and

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Vegetative Parts of Plants

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Vegetative parts of plants

Vegetative Parts of Plants

Spring

2012


Descriptive terminology

Descriptive Terminology

  • LEARN DESCRIPTIVE TERMINOLOGY = PHYTOGRAPHY

    - Vegetative

    - Floral/inflorescence

    - Fruit

  • ASSOCIATE STRUCTURES WITH TERMS

    - Significant range of variation

    - Learn to identify major structures and

    modifications


R w pohl conservatory 5 th floor bessey hall

R. W. Pohl Conservatory5th floor – Bessey Hall

  • AVAILABLE TO BIOLOGY 366 STUDENTS

    - Free to look at plants to get a better idea of morphological

    structures and taxonomic diversity.

  • OPEN HOURS ARE 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday - Friday

    - Some Friday afternoons conservatory is closed for

    pesticide applications. Some research areas are not

    available for general viewing.

    - Access by the elevator. Pay attention to warning signs!

  • PLANTS AND PLANT PARTS ARE NOT TO BE REMOVED

    - Pesticides have been applied to all plant material.

    - Do not eat any plant products.

    - Do not disturb any research areas.


Vegetative parts of plants

Sequoiadendron—

most massive

Sequoia—tallest


Vegetative parts of plants

Among the smallest plants in the world:

Duckweeds (Lemna, Araceae)

Root and 1-2 leaves; floating aquatic


Vegetative parts of plants1

Vegetative Parts of Plants

NON-REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS:

ROOTS - STEMS - LEAVES


Vegetative parts of plants

Fig. 9.1 from Simpson


Roots

Roots

  • FUNCTIONS

    - Anchoring and support

    - Absorption of water and mineral nutrients; mycorrhizae

  • STRUCTURE

    - xylem and phloem usually in a central vascular strand

    - no cuticle (except on aerial roots), root hairs.

    - branching pattern variable; adventitious roots

    - no nodes/internodes present in roots!

  • DESCRIPTIVE TERMS:

    - Taproot (carrot) vs. fibrous roots (grass)

    - Fibrous, adventitious, aerial, fleshy, prop


Vegetative parts of plants

fibrous

storage

buttress

pneumatophores

Fig. 9.2 from Simpson


Vegetative parts of plants

Fibrous roots

Tap root


Vegetative parts of plants

Adventitious roots – roots

produced by structures other

than another root(e.g.,stems)


Vegetative parts of plants

Root Modifications:

Ficus (Moraceae) “Strangler Fig”

Adaptation for anchoring

and nutrient gathering –

begins as an

epiphyte, and

sends down

adventitious

roots.


Vegetative parts of plants

Prop roots (adventitious)

Pandanus (Pandanaceae)


Vegetative parts of plants

Haustorial roots

Found in parasitic

plants.

Host stem

Dodder (Cuscuta,

Convolvulaceae)


Vegetative parts of plants

Buttress roots


Vegetative parts of plants

Modifications of Roots:

Mangroves – Anchoring, support, and

aeration (coastline habitats)


Vegetative parts of plants

Mangrove:

Pre-dehiscence

germination

Root is already

emerged from

seed before it

is separated

from the tree.


Vegetative parts of plants

Root Modifications: Aerenchyma in aquatics


Vegetative parts of plants

Mycorrhizal associations were critical

to the invasion of land by plants and

are nearly universal in plants.

endomycorrhizae

ectomycorrhizae


Stems

Stems

  • FUNCTIONS

    - support and exposure of leaves to light, flowers to

    pollination agents, fruits to dispersal agents

    - vascular conduction of water/minerals and photosynthates

    - sometimes the primary photosynthetic organ

  • STRUCTURE

    - nodes and internodes; rearrangement of vascular tissues

    - ring of bundles or scattered bundles in primary stems

    - secondary growth produces secondary xylem (wood)

    - epidermis in primary stems; bark in woody plants

    - buds: terminal, axillary/lateral, bud scale scars

  • DESCRIPTIVE TERMS:

    - Branching patterns; bulbs, herbaceous, woody

    - Horizontal stems: above ground = stolons; below = rhizomes

    - Vines, shrubs, trees, succulent, tendril, cladode, etc.


Vegetative parts of plants

Fig. 9.1 from Simpson


Stems nodes and internodes

Stems: Nodes and Internodes


Vegetative parts of plants

Fig. 9.3 from Simpson


Vegetative parts of plants

Herbaceous stems:


Stems some can be hollow loss of pith during maturation

Stems: Some can be hollow;loss of pith during maturation


Vegetative parts of plants

Modifications in

the Petiolar Region

Swollen nodes:

Characteristic of the Pink

Family (Caryophyllaceae)


Vegetative parts of plants

Vines and climbers:


Vegetative parts of plants

Photosynthetic Stems

cladodes

succulent stems


Vegetative parts of plants

Tussock:

In plants with a

graminoid (grass-

like) habit, stems

may not be evident.

This example is a

‘tussock’ habit,

forming clumps.


Vegetative parts of plants

Basal rosette:


Vegetative parts of plants

No apparent stems!

Subterranean horizontal stems: Rhizomes


Vegetative parts of plants

Rhizomes vs. roots


Vegetative parts of plants

Tubers (underground storage stems):

wsu.edu

energyfarms.com


Vegetative parts of plants

Bulbs: stems (internodes) are

shortened and leaves are fleshy

and protective.


Vegetative parts of plants

Woody Stems – Arborescent or

shrubby habit


Vegetative parts of plants

Stem Modifications:

Bark (phellem or cork)

Most woody plants produce bark, a growth of the cork cambial layer, for mechanical protection and to reduce water loss.


Leaves

Leaves

  • FUNCTIONS

    - light capture, production of photosynthates, transpiration

  • STRUCTURE

    - petiole, stipules, pulvinus, blade (lamina), veins

    - vestiture (minimally a cuticle), hairs, scales, etc.

    - simple vs. compound (blade divided into discrete parts)

    - many modifications, including extreme reduction

    - virtually always with a bud or branch in the axil

  • DESCRIPTIVE TERMS:

    - Many, based on leaf shape, size, color, venation, margin,

    apex, base, arrangement, number, presentation


Vegetative parts of plants

Basic leaf structure


Vegetative parts of plants

Stipules


Vegetative parts of plants

Modifications in

the Petiolar Region

Ocrea: stipular tube

(characteristic of most of the Buckwheat Family, Polygonaceae)


Vegetative parts of plants

pulvinus

(lower)


Vegetative parts of plants

Modifications in

the Petiolar Region

Sheathing leaf bases


Venation parallel vs netted

Venation: Parallel vs. “Netted”


Vegetative parts of plants

Unusual venation: Melastomataceae


Leaf blade

Leaf blade:

Simple

Compound

Pinnate

Palmate


Vegetative parts of plants

Compound leaves

Fig. 9.9,

Simpson


Vegetative parts of plants

Palmate Leaf – leaflets arise from one point


Vegetative parts of plants

Leaf Arrangement


Vegetative parts of plants

Variation in leaf shape morphology:

Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)


Vegetative parts of plants

Leaf modifications: bracts


Vegetative parts of plants

Leaf modifications

Leaf tendrils

Bud scales


Modifications for capturing insects

Modifications for capturing insects

Droseraceae

Sarraceniaceae


Vegetative parts of plants

Leaf Modifications:

Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae)

Adaptation for vegetative

propagation – sheds pre-formed plantlets from leaf margins.


Vegetative parts of plants

Bulbs: stems (internodes) are

shortened and leaves are fleshy

and protective.


Vegetative parts of plants

Indumentum: Surface Structures

Hairs, trichomes, scales


Vegetative parts of plants

Hair types

Fig. 9.59 in Simpson


Vegetative parts of plants

Armature: Thorns, spines, prickles


Vegetative parts of plants

And the ultimate leaf modifications:


Summary

Summary

  • Vegetative structures important in describing plants.

  • Variations on similar basic morphology can be diagnostic for certain plant groups.

  • An understanding of descriptive terms is essential for plant identification and to understand morphological evolution.

  • Make lists of terms and their associated structures; drawings or diagrams, however crude, may also help, as will photos.

  • Be sure to observe, compare and contrast related structures to avoid interpretation errors.


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