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Vegetative Parts of Plants. Spring 2012. Descriptive Terminology. LEARN DESCRIPTIVE TERMINOLOGY = PHYTOGRAPHY - Vegetative - Floral/inflorescence - Fruit ASSOCIATE STRUCTURES WITH TERMS - Significant range of variation - Learn to identify major structures and

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descriptive terminology
Descriptive Terminology
  • LEARN DESCRIPTIVE TERMINOLOGY = PHYTOGRAPHY

- Vegetative

- Floral/inflorescence

- Fruit

  • ASSOCIATE STRUCTURES WITH TERMS

- Significant range of variation

- Learn to identify major structures and

modifications

r w pohl conservatory 5 th floor bessey hall
R. W. Pohl Conservatory5th floor – Bessey Hall
  • AVAILABLE TO BIOLOGY 366 STUDENTS

- Free to look at plants to get a better idea of morphological

structures and taxonomic diversity.

  • OPEN HOURS ARE 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday - Friday

- Some Friday afternoons conservatory is closed for

pesticide applications. Some research areas are not

available for general viewing.

- Access by the elevator. Pay attention to warning signs!

  • PLANTS AND PLANT PARTS ARE NOT TO BE REMOVED

- Pesticides have been applied to all plant material.

- Do not eat any plant products.

- Do not disturb any research areas.

slide4

Sequoiadendron—

most massive

Sequoia—tallest

slide5

Among the smallest plants in the world:

Duckweeds (Lemna, Araceae)

Root and 1-2 leaves; floating aquatic

vegetative parts of plants1
Vegetative Parts of Plants

NON-REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS:

ROOTS - STEMS - LEAVES

roots
Roots
  • FUNCTIONS

- Anchoring and support

- Absorption of water and mineral nutrients; mycorrhizae

  • STRUCTURE

- xylem and phloem usually in a central vascular strand

- no cuticle (except on aerial roots), root hairs.

- branching pattern variable; adventitious roots

- no nodes/internodes present in roots!

  • DESCRIPTIVE TERMS:

- Taproot (carrot) vs. fibrous roots (grass)

- Fibrous, adventitious, aerial, fleshy, prop

slide9

fibrous

storage

buttress

pneumatophores

Fig. 9.2 from Simpson

slide11

Adventitious roots – roots

produced by structures other

than another root(e.g.,stems)

slide12

Root Modifications:

Ficus (Moraceae) “Strangler Fig”

Adaptation for anchoring

and nutrient gathering –

begins as an

epiphyte, and

sends down

adventitious

roots.

slide13

Prop roots (adventitious)

Pandanus (Pandanaceae)

slide14

Haustorial roots

Found in parasitic

plants.

Host stem

Dodder (Cuscuta,

Convolvulaceae)

slide16

Modifications of Roots:

Mangroves – Anchoring, support, and

aeration (coastline habitats)

slide17

Mangrove:

Pre-dehiscence

germination

Root is already

emerged from

seed before it

is separated

from the tree.

slide19

Mycorrhizal associations were critical

to the invasion of land by plants and

are nearly universal in plants.

endomycorrhizae

ectomycorrhizae

stems
Stems
  • FUNCTIONS

- support and exposure of leaves to light, flowers to

pollination agents, fruits to dispersal agents

- vascular conduction of water/minerals and photosynthates

- sometimes the primary photosynthetic organ

  • STRUCTURE

- nodes and internodes; rearrangement of vascular tissues

- ring of bundles or scattered bundles in primary stems

- secondary growth produces secondary xylem (wood)

- epidermis in primary stems; bark in woody plants

- buds: terminal, axillary/lateral, bud scale scars

  • DESCRIPTIVE TERMS:

- Branching patterns; bulbs, herbaceous, woody

- Horizontal stems: above ground = stolons; below = rhizomes

- Vines, shrubs, trees, succulent, tendril, cladode, etc.

slide26

Modifications in

the Petiolar Region

Swollen nodes:

Characteristic of the Pink

Family (Caryophyllaceae)

slide28

Photosynthetic Stems

cladodes

succulent stems

slide29

Tussock:

In plants with a

graminoid (grass-

like) habit, stems

may not be evident.

This example is a

‘tussock’ habit,

forming clumps.

slide31

No apparent stems!

Subterranean horizontal stems: Rhizomes

slide34

Bulbs: stems (internodes) are

shortened and leaves are fleshy

and protective.

slide36

Stem Modifications:

Bark (phellem or cork)

Most woody plants produce bark, a growth of the cork cambial layer, for mechanical protection and to reduce water loss.

leaves
Leaves
  • FUNCTIONS

- light capture, production of photosynthates, transpiration

  • STRUCTURE

- petiole, stipules, pulvinus, blade (lamina), veins

- vestiture (minimally a cuticle), hairs, scales, etc.

- simple vs. compound (blade divided into discrete parts)

- many modifications, including extreme reduction

- virtually always with a bud or branch in the axil

  • DESCRIPTIVE TERMS:

- Many, based on leaf shape, size, color, venation, margin,

apex, base, arrangement, number, presentation

slide40

Modifications in

the Petiolar Region

Ocrea: stipular tube

(characteristic of most of the Buckwheat Family, Polygonaceae)

slide41

pulvinus

(lower)

slide42

Modifications in

the Petiolar Region

Sheathing leaf bases

leaf blade
Leaf blade:

Simple

Compound

Pinnate

Palmate

slide46

Compound leaves

Fig. 9.9,

Simpson

slide49

Variation in leaf shape morphology:

Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)

slide51

Leaf modifications

Leaf tendrils

Bud scales

modifications for capturing insects
Modifications for capturing insects

Droseraceae

Sarraceniaceae

slide53

Leaf Modifications:

Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae)

Adaptation for vegetative

propagation – sheds pre-formed plantlets from leaf margins.

slide54

Bulbs: stems (internodes) are

shortened and leaves are fleshy

and protective.

slide55

Indumentum: Surface Structures

Hairs, trichomes, scales

slide56

Hair types

Fig. 9.59 in Simpson

summary
Summary
  • Vegetative structures important in describing plants.
  • Variations on similar basic morphology can be diagnostic for certain plant groups.
  • An understanding of descriptive terms is essential for plant identification and to understand morphological evolution.
  • Make lists of terms and their associated structures; drawings or diagrams, however crude, may also help, as will photos.
  • Be sure to observe, compare and contrast related structures to avoid interpretation errors.
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