Telescopes (cont).
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Telescopes (cont). Imaging Spectroscopy Long Term Monitoring. May involve imaging, spectroscopy, or both Over long time durations How do properties change with time? Weather, climate, dust storms, persistence of Jupiter’s red spot, orbits of moons. Discovered Jupiter’s rings

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Telescopes (cont).

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Telescopes cont

Telescopes (cont).

  • Imaging

  • Spectroscopy

  • Long Term Monitoring

May involve imaging, spectroscopy, or both

Over long time durations

How do properties change with time?

Weather, climate, dust storms, persistence of Jupiter’s red spot, orbits of moons


Telescopes cont

  • Discovered Jupiter’s rings

  • Details of Saturn’s, Uranus’ and Neptune’s rings

  • Measured magnetic fields as function of distance

  • Gravitational effect by moons measure moon densities

Robotic Spacecraft

Some of these measurements are “backlit” from the sun, i.e. in silhouette- cannot be done from Earth at all

The “Flyby”, short duration close up study..

Voyager 2 flew by

Jupiter July 9, 1997

Saturn Aug 25, 1981

Uranus Jan 24, 1986

Neptune Aug 25, 1989

“Orbiters” can give long term monitoring, but they are much more expensive


Telescopes cont

Robotic Spacecraft

“Landers” on the other hand, stick around and move around on a surface. Close up and Personal!

“Probes” on the other hand, go in and don’t come back! Close up and Personal!

  • Galileo Probe dropped into the atmosphere of Jupiter (1995)

  • Collected

  • Temperature

  • Wind Speeds

  • Pressure

  • Composition

  • Radiation levels

  • As a function of depth for about an hour before it was destroyed

New generations Landers are soft landing rovers…


Telescopes cont

Robotic Spacecraft to Come

This summer!

Cassini Orbiter

Huygens Probe


Telescopes cont

Biological Tour of the Solar System (Intro)

  • Terrestrial Planets and their moons

  • Mercury (like the moon?)

  • Venus (like the Earth once?)

  • Earth’s Moon

  • Mars (like the Earth once?)

  • Mars’ Moons

  • JOVIAN PLANETS--- later date….


Telescopes cont

Mercury and Earth’s Moon

Mercury and Moon are least likely habitats

  • small, lost internal heat

  • no outgassing- no atmospheres

  • scared with craters, surfaces are old

  • evidence for impacts suggest that some organics and water deposited on these bodies

However….


Telescopes cont

Evidence for Permafrost Water on Lunar Poles?

This color-coded map from the Lunar Prospector mission shows evidence for water-ice in craters near the Moon’s North pole. (late 1990).

Used neutron detection techniques.

Dark blue and purple regions have highest hydrogen concentrations, which may be due to water concentrations on or just below the surface.

In these regions, some craters are permanently shielded from the Sun.

Similar results were found on the Moon’s south pole.

We have no corresponding probe of Mercury…


Telescopes cont

Magellan Orbiter Radio Maps

Venus – Earth’s Sister

  • 2/3 the distance from Sun as Earth

  • 80% mass of Earth

  • Calculations predicted 35C temperature

As we know, Venus suffers a runaway greenhouse effect (discuss details of how it got there in Ch 9)

Surface is very young, regenerates every so often, last time was 1 billion years ago

Earth 1% carbon dioxide

Venus 96% carbon dioxide

Venus too hot for liquid water, ammonia, methane, or ethane

Venera Lander Photo (and then sphttthht!)

Early ocean’s on Venus?

Discuss implications later…


Telescopes cont

Volcanisms occurs on Venus, but no plate tectonics!


Telescopes cont

Small Moons

Mars’ two moons are

Phobos and Deimos

Objects like these most certainly lack liquids

Too small to have internal heat that would energize metabolism or allow for liquid

Meteorites must have contained liquid water shortly after their formation, and these objects contain organic molecules on them from space (formation).

Early life on these bodies would seem very unlikely.

These very small moons and asteroids too far from sun to have any ice water melt in the current epoch.


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