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Small Group Phonics Instruction. Georgia Reading First Conference Kristina Najera University of Delaware. Walpole & McKenna (2007). Differentiated Reading Instruction: Strategies for the Primary Grades Guilford Press www.guilford.com. Agenda. A Plan for Differentiated Instruction

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Small Group Phonics Instruction

Georgia Reading First Conference

Kristina Najera

University of Delaware


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Walpole & McKenna (2007)

Differentiated Reading Instruction: Strategies for the Primary Grades

Guilford Press

www.guilford.com


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Agenda

  • A Plan for Differentiated Instruction

  • Using Assessment to Differentiate Instruction

  • Building Word Recognition in Small Groups

  • A Differentiation Plan


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A few questions about small group instruction

  • Is your small group instruction needs-based and flexible?

  • What are you doing with kids in the small group?

  • What are other kids doing while you are working with a small group?


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A Differentiation Plan

  • Understand structure of the core scope and sequence of instruction

  • Use and understand continuous assessments of student progress

  • Choose to implement specific differentiation strategies

  • Select content from the core to preteach or reteach


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Steps to choose and use differentiation strategies

Key—collaborate in grade level teams


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Step 1: Gather Your Resources

  • Find and examine scope and sequence for developing phonics skills and recognition of high frequency words

  • Locate and organize informal achievement or placement tests associated with your materials

  • Locate and organize informal assessments in schools’ professional books.


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A Possible Progression

1. Consonants, beginning and ending of words

2. Word Families and Short Vowels

(Usually a-, i-, o-, e-, u- families,

then across families, then vowels outside of families)


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  • Initial blends and digraphs

    (bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl; br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr; sc, sk, sl, sm, sn, sp, st, sw)

    (ch,sh,th,wh)

  • Affricates

    (g, j, dr, ch, tr, ch)

  • Final consonant blends and digraphs

    (-st, -ft, -mp, -nd, -nt, -sh, -th, -sh

    -ck, -ng, -nk, -ell)


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  • Vowel-Consonant-E

    (-aCe, eCe, iCe, oCe, uCe)

  • R-controlled vowels

    (ar, er, ir, or, ur)

  • Other long vowel patterns(ai, ay, ee, ea, oa, ui, igh)

  • Complex consonant clusters (scr, tch, kn, dge, qu)

  • Abstract vowels(ou, ow, ew, oi, oy, oo, au, aw)


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Step 2: Consider Your Children’s Needs

  • Review recent screening data

  • Make instructional groups based on data

  • Choose 2 areas to target for each group

  • Choose differentiation strategies in those areas

  • Gather materials for 3 weeks of needs-based instruction


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Step 3: Try it Out!

  • Pilot your plan for 3 weeks

  • Gather with colleagues to share, evaluate, and fine-tune differentiation plans


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Using Assessment to Differentiate Instruction

  • To determine which students need additional instruction in a given area

  • To determine their specific instructional needs in this area

  • To determine progress in meeting needs

  • To determine effectiveness of additional instruction


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Using Assessment to Differentiate Instruction

  • Four Types of Assessment

    • Screening

    • Diagnostic

    • Progress Monitoring

    • Outcome


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Cognitive Model of Reading Assessment McKenna & Stahl, 2003

Phonological

Awareness

Decoding

Sight Word

Knowledge

Fluency

& Context

Automatic

Word

Recognition

Vocabulary

Background

Knowledge

Language

Comprehension

Reading

Comprehension

Knowledge

of Structure

Strategic

Knowledge

General

Purposes

for Reading

Specific

Purposes

for Reading

Knowledge

of Strategies

for Reading

Print

Concepts


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Guiding Questions about Word Recognition McKenna & Stahl, 2003

  • Does the child make use of context to monitor his or her reading?

  • Is the child fluent?

  • Does the child have adequate sight word knowledge?

  • Does the child have adequate knowledge of decoding strategies?

  • Does the child have adequate phonological awareness?


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Guiding Questions about Oral Language Comprehension McKenna & Stahl, 2003

  • Does the child have adequate vocabulary for age and gender?

  • Does the child have background knowledge necessary to comprehend a particular passage?

  • Is the child able to use text structures to aid comprehension?


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Guiding Questions about Strategic Knowledge McKenna & Stahl, 2003

  • Does the child have a set of strategies to achieve different purposes?

  • What does the child view as the goal of reading in general?

  • What concepts of print does the child have?


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Forming Groups Based on Needs McKenna & Stahl, 2003

  • Forming word recognition groups

    • Problem with fluency:

      • Screen in phonics and sight vocabulary

      • If problem with either, do not group for fluency

      • If okay in both, proved fluency instruction

    • Problem with sight vocabulary

      • Screen in phonics

      • Plan needs-based instruction based on words inventoried


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Forming Groups Based on Needs McKenna & Stahl, 2003

  • Forming word recognition groups

    • Problem with phonics

    • Problem with phonological awareness



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Building Word Recognition level?

  • NRP concluded that various types of systematic phonics instruction were effective in supporting reading, spelling, and comprehension, especially if they were provided during kindergarten and first grade

    (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000)


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Building Word Recognition level?

  • Word Recognition:

    • The process by which readers match written representations of words with their sound and spelling in memory.

    • Goal of phonics instruction: develop large automatic reading vocabulary so that consciously applied phonics strategies are only rarely needed

  • Skilled Readers:

    • Read words by processing virtually every letter in every word (Adams, 1990).


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Building Word Recognition level?

  • Development of Phonics Skills

    • Sort

    • reading.uoregon.edu/appendices/maps.php

    • Basic phonics concepts

  • Automatic word recognition for HFW

  • Decoding by analogy


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Instructional Strategies for Word Recognition level?

  • Teaching letter names and sounds

  • Teaching sounding and blending

  • Teaching letter patterns

  • Teaching high-frequency words

    .


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Teaching Letter Names and Sounds level?

  • Who? Children who do poorly on Letter Name Fluency tasks

  • How? Make letter cards consistent with your instructional sequence; figure out which they don’t know.

  • How do you know if it’s working?


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Here’s a 12-Week Plan level?

b, m, s

m, r, s

t, n, g

i, p, n

n, t, g,

m, b, t

d, h, l

l, h, c

f, j, w

k, f, w

d, l, f

y, v, z

Remember that we teach these in small sets


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Teaching Sounding and Blending level?

  • Who? Children who know their letter names and sounds but do poorly on word reading

  • How? Make word cards that review and extend the patterns that have been taught in phonics instruction.

  • How do you know if it’s working?


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Teaching Letter Patterns level?

  • Who? Children who know their letter names and sounds, can sound and blend, but are not automatic.

  • How? Make word lists that review and extend the patterns that have been taught in phonics instruction.

  • How do you know if it’s working?


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High-frequency Vowel Patterns level?

ack at ight op

ail ate ill ore

ain aw in ot

ake ay ine uck

ale eat ing ug

ame ell ink ump

an est ip unk

ank ice it

ap ide ock

ash ick oke


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Here’s a 16-Week Plan for Short Vowel Families level?

at, an

at, ag

at, an, ag

ag, an, ap

it, in

in, ig

it, in, ig

it, ig, ip

ot, op

op, og

ot, op, og

ug, ut

un, ut

un, ut, ug

ed, et

ed, en, et

Remember that we teach these in small sets


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Here’s a 20-Week Plan for Other Long Vowels level?

short a, a_e, ay

short a, a_e, ai, ay

a_e, ai, ay, ei

short e, e, ee

short e, ee, ea

short e, ea, ee, ea

short i, i_e, y

short i, i_e, y, igh

short i, i_e, igh,

short o, o_e, oa

short o, o_e, oa, ow

short o, o_e, ow

short u, u_e, ue, ui

short u, u_e, ue, ew

ar, a_e, ai, are

ar, are, ai, air

er, ea, ee, ear

er ee, ear, eer

ir, i_e, igh, ire

or, o_e, oa, ore

Remember that we teach these in small sets

Notice that each set has one easy pattern


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Teaching High-Frequency Words level?

  • Who? Children who are not remembering the high frequency words that you have taught or who struggle with HF words during oral reading.

  • How? Use an inventory to decide which words to teach.

  • How do you know if it’s working?



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Steps level?

  • Gather your resources

  • Consider your children’s needs

  • Try it out


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Step 1: Gather Resources level?

  • Curriculum resources

  • Assessment resources


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Step 2: Consider Your Children’s Needs level?

  • Instructional groups based on the data

  • Assign students to groups

  • Choose target areas

  • Choose differentiation strategies in those areas


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Step 3: Plan for 3 weeks of instruction level?

  • Gather materials for 3 weeks of needs-based instruction



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