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The Brain & Cranial Nerves. Ch 14. spine. brain. Development of the neural tube from embryonic ectoderm. Embryonic Development. Brain Development. Coverings of the Brain- Meninges. skin. skull. dura mater. arachnoid layer. pia mater. cerebral cortex. Menenges:

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The Brain & Cranial Nerves

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The Brain & Cranial Nerves

Ch 14


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spine

brain


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Development of the neural tube from embryonic ectoderm


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Embryonic Development


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Brain Development


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Coverings of the Brain-Meninges

skin

skull

dura mater

arachnoid layer

pia mater

cerebral cortex


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  • Menenges:

  • Covers and protects CNS

  • Protects blood vessels and encloses venus sinuses

  • Contains CSF

  • Forms partition within the skull


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Cerebruspinal Fluid

Brain

Ventricles

CSF

Spinal Cord

Lf. Ventricle

Rt. Ventricle

Saggital View

Anterior View


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Ventricles


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  • CSF

    • 150 ml in adult

    • contains: glucose, proteins,lactic acid, urea, cations, anions, WBC

  • Functions:

    • Reduces wt. of brain by 97%

    • Prevents head injury

    • Supplies brain with nutrition

    • Transports hormones along ventricular channels


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Occipital Lobe

The Cerebrum

Brainstem

Cerebellum

The Brain

Parietal Lobe

Frontal Lobe

Temporal Lobe


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corpus callosum

cerebrum

thalamus

hypothalamus

pituitary

pons

medulla oblongata

spinal cord

Pineal gland

cerebellum


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Cerebrum

  • Involved with higher brain functions.

  • Processes sensory information.

  • Initiates motor functions.

  • Integrates information.


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cerebral cortex

white matter

corpus callosum

basal ganglia

ventricles

Cerebrum Cross-Section


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Motor, Sensory & Association Cortex


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Primary Sensory Cortex


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Primary Motor Cortex


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Right-Left Specialization of the Cerebrum

left side

  • language development

  • mathematical & learning capabilities

  • sequential thought processes

    right side

  • visual spatial skills

  • musical and artistic activities

  • intuitive abilities


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Diencephalon

hypothalamus

thalamus

pituitary


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Diencephalon


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Thalamus

  • Relay center for sensory tracts from the spinal cord to the cerebrum.

  • Contains centers for sensation of pain, temperature, and touch.

  • Involved with emotions and alerting or arousal mechanisms.


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The Reticular Formation


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Hypothalamus

Regulates:

  • autonomic control center- blood pressure, rate and force of heart contraction, center for emotional response and behavior

  • body temperature

  • water balance and thirst

  • sleep/wake cycles

  • appetite

  • sexual arousal

  • control of endocrine functioning:

  • Acts on the pituitary gland through the release of neurosecretions.


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Hypothalamus


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The Limbic System

The Limbic System


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Midbrain

  • Contains ascending and descending tracts to the cerebrum and thalamus.

  • Reflex center for eye muscles.

  • Also involved with processing visual and auditory information (connects head movements with visual and auditory stimuli).


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Pons

  • Connects the two halves of the cerebellum.

  • Regulates breathing.


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Medulla Oblongata

  • Composed of nerve tracts to and from the brain (these tracts cross over left to right and right to left)

  • May be regarded as an extension of the spinal cord

  • Almost all of the cranial nerves arise from this region


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Medulla Oblongata

  • Contains control centers for many subconscious activities

  • Respiratory rate

  • Heart rate

  • Arteriole constriction

  • Swallowing

  • Hiccupping

  • Coughing

  • Sneezing


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Cerebellum

  • Controls and coordinates muscular activity.

  • Important in equilibrium, posture and movement.


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Cranial Nerves

  • On OldOlympus Towering Tops A Fat Voracious German Viewed A Hop

  • Olfactory- smell

  • Optic- vision

  • Oculomotor- 4 of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles

  • Trochlear- extrinsic eye muscles

  • Trigeminal- sensory fibers to the face and motor fibers to the chewing muscles

  • Abducens- controls eye muscles that turn the eye laterally

  • Facial- facial expression

  • Vestibulocochlear- hearing and balance

  • Glosopharyngeal- tongue and pharynx

  • Vagus- from medulla- acetylcholine slows heart & breathing

  • Accessory- accessory part of vagus nerve

  • Hypoglossal- moves muscles under tongue


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Cranial Nerves

Olfactory

Optic

Oculomotor

Trochlear

Trigeminal

Abducens

Facial

Vestibulocochlear

Glossopharyngeal

Vagus

Accessory

Hypoglossal


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Olfactory Nerves I

Olfactory bulb

Olfactory tract

Filaments of olfactory nerve

Olfactory receptor cell


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Optic Nerves II


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Oculomotor Nerves III


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Trochlear Nerves IV


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Trigeminal Nerves V


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Abducens Nerves VI


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Facial Nerves VII


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Vestibulochoclear Nerves VIII


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Glosopharyngeal Nerves IX


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Vagus Nerves X


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Accessory Nerves XI


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Hypoglossal Nerves XII


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Traumatic Brain Injuries

  • Concussion

  • Contusion

  • Subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage

  • Contrecoup injury


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Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVAs)

  • Ischemia

  • Thrombus

  • Embolism

  • Arteriosclerosis

  • Stroke


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Degenerative brain diseases

  • Alzheimer’s

  • Down’s

  • Parkinson’s

  • Huntington’s Chorea

  • MS

  • Epilepsy

  • Schizophrenia


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PET Scans

F-Dopa deficiency


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