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Compounds and Their Bonds. Part II: Covalent Bonding. Covalent Bonds. Covalent Bonds. Which elements on the periodic table have a strong pull on electrons?. Covalent Bonds. Covalent: “ Co -ownership of valence electrons”

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compounds and their bonds
Compounds and Their Bonds

Part II:

Covalent Bonding

covalent bonds1
Covalent Bonds
  • Which elements on the periodic table have a strong pull on electrons?
covalent bonds2
Covalent Bonds
  • Covalent: “Co-ownership of valence electrons”
  • Unlike ionic bonds, covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons
  • Some common covalent molecules:

Cl2 CO2 H2O

NH3 HCl CH4

  • What do you notice about the compositions of covalent compounds?
slide5

Cl

Cl

How will two chlorine atoms react?

slide6

Cl

Cl

Each chlorine atom wants to gain one electron to achieve an octet

slide7

Cl

Cl

Neither atom will give up an electron –

chlorine is highly electronegative.

What’s the solution?

What can they do to achieve an octet?

slide8

Cl

Cl

slide9

Cl

Cl

slide10

Cl

Cl

slide11

Cl

Cl

slide12

Cl

Cl

octet

slide13

Cl

Cl

octet

slide14

Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle

slide15

Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle

slide16

Cl

This forms an octet

slide17

Cl

So does this

slide18

Cl

Cl

This is the bonding pair

slide19

Cl

Cl

It is called aSINGLE BOND

slide20

Cl

Cl

Single bonds are abbreviated with a dash and written as:

Cl2

slide22

O2

Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules

slide23

O

O

How will two oxygen atoms bond?

slide24

O

O

Each atom has two unpaired electrons

slide25

O

O

slide26

O

O

slide27

O

O

slide28

O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.

slide29

O

O

slide30

O

O

slide31

O

O

slide32

O

O

slide33

O

O

slide34

O

O

Both electron pairs are shared.

slide35

O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet

slide36

O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet

slide37

O

O

two bonding pairs,

making a doublebond

slide38

O

O

=

O

O

For convenience, the double bond

can be shown as two dashes.

covalent bonds examples4
Covalent Bonds Examples

Structural Diagram for CO2

Structural Diagram for NH3

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