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Compounds and Their Bonds. Part II: Covalent Bonding. Covalent Bonds. Covalent Bonds. Which elements on the periodic table have a strong pull on electrons?. Covalent Bonds. Covalent: “ Co -ownership of valence electrons”

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Compounds and their bonds
Compounds and Their Bonds

Part II:

Covalent Bonding



Covalent bonds1
Covalent Bonds

  • Which elements on the periodic table have a strong pull on electrons?


Covalent bonds2
Covalent Bonds

  • Covalent: “Co-ownership of valence electrons”

  • Unlike ionic bonds, covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons

  • Some common covalent molecules:

    Cl2 CO2 H2O

    NH3 HCl CH4

  • What do you notice about the compositions of covalent compounds?


Cl

Cl

How will two chlorine atoms react?


Cl

Cl

Each chlorine atom wants to gain one electron to achieve an octet


Cl

Cl

Neither atom will give up an electron –

chlorine is highly electronegative.

What’s the solution?

What can they do to achieve an octet?


Cl

Cl


Cl

Cl


Cl

Cl


Cl

Cl


Cl

Cl

octet


Cl

Cl

octet


Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle


Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle


Cl

This forms an octet


Cl

So does this


Cl

Cl

This is the bonding pair


Cl

Cl

It is called aSINGLE BOND


Cl

Cl

Single bonds are abbreviated with a dash and written as:

Cl2



O2

Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules


O

O

How will two oxygen atoms bond?


O

O

Each atom has two unpaired electrons


O

O


O

O


O

O


O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.


O

O


O

O


O

O


O

O


O

O


O

O

Both electron pairs are shared.


O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet


O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet


O

O

two bonding pairs,

making a doublebond


O

O

=

O

O

For convenience, the double bond

can be shown as two dashes.







Covalent bonds examples4
Covalent Bonds Examples

Structural Diagram for CO2

Structural Diagram for NH3


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