Compounds and their bonds
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Compounds and Their Bonds. Part II: Covalent Bonding. Covalent Bonds. Covalent Bonds. Which elements on the periodic table have a strong pull on electrons?. Covalent Bonds. Covalent: “ Co -ownership of valence electrons”

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Compounds and Their Bonds

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Compounds and their bonds

Compounds and Their Bonds

Part II:

Covalent Bonding


Covalent bonds

Covalent Bonds


Covalent bonds1

Covalent Bonds

  • Which elements on the periodic table have a strong pull on electrons?


Covalent bonds2

Covalent Bonds

  • Covalent: “Co-ownership of valence electrons”

  • Unlike ionic bonds, covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons

  • Some common covalent molecules:

    Cl2CO2H2O

    NH3HClCH4

  • What do you notice about the compositions of covalent compounds?


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

How will two chlorine atoms react?


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

Each chlorine atom wants to gain one electron to achieve an octet


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

Neither atom will give up an electron –

chlorine is highly electronegative.

What’s the solution?

What can they do to achieve an octet?


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

octet


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

octet


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

The octet is achieved by

each atom sharing the

electron pair in the middle


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

This forms an octet


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

So does this


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

This is the bonding pair


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

It is called aSINGLE BOND


Compounds and their bonds

Cl

Cl

Single bonds are abbreviated with a dash and written as:

Cl2


Covalent bonds diatoms

Covalent Bonds (Diatoms)

Cl2F2H2


Compounds and their bonds

O2

Oxygen is also one of the diatomic molecules


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

How will two oxygen atoms bond?


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

Each atom has two unpaired electrons


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative.

So both atoms want to gain two electrons.


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

Both electron pairs are shared.


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

6 valence electrons

plus 2 shared electrons

= full octet


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

two bonding pairs,

making a doublebond


Compounds and their bonds

O

O

=

O

O

For convenience, the double bond

can be shown as two dashes.


Compounds and their bonds

This is the oxygen molecule,

O2


Covalent bonds examples

Covalent Bonds Examples


Covalent bonds examples1

Covalent Bonds Examples


Covalent bonds examples2

Covalent Bonds Examples


Covalent bonds examples3

Covalent Bonds Examples


Covalent bonds examples4

Covalent Bonds Examples

Structural Diagram for CO2

Structural Diagram for NH3


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