Environmental Influences on Gender Typing
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Environmental Influences on Gender Typing Social Learning Theory Gender typing results from imitation of same-sex models and reinforcement for this behavior . Parental Behavior On average, differences in parental treatment of boys and girls are not large

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Environmental influences on gender typing social learning theory gender typing results from

Environmental Influences on Gender Typing

  • Social Learning Theory

    • Gender typing results from

      • imitation of same-sex models and reinforcement for this behavior


Environmental influences on gender typing social learning theory gender typing results from

Parental Behavior

  • On average, differences in parental treatment of boys and girls are not large

  • Does not mean that parental behavior is unimportant because:

    • Younger children receive more direct training in gender roles than older children

    • Some parents probably practice differential treatment more intensely than others


Environmental influences on gender typing social learning theory gender typing results from

  • Parents create different environments for boys and girls beginning in infancy (e.g., bedrooms, toys)


Environmental influences on gender typing social learning theory gender typing results from

  • Parents give toys that stress action and competition to boys (e.g., guns, cars, tools, footballs)

  • Give toys that emphasize nurturance, cooperation, and physical attractiveness to girls (e.g., dolls, tea sets, jewelry, jump ropes)


Environmental influences on gender typing social learning theory gender typing results from

  • Parents reinforce independence in boys

    • React more positively when boys demand attention, run and climb, or try to take toys from others

  • Parents reinforce closeness/dependency in girls

    • More likely to direct play activities, provide help, encourage participation in household tasks, and refer to emotions


Environmental influences on gender typing social learning theory gender typing results from

  • Fathers tend to treat boys and girls more differently than do mothers

    • Engage in more physically stimulating play with infant sons than daughters

    • Less likely to give “girl toys” (e.g., dolls) to sons


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