Anaesthetic management of turp
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AnAesthetic management of TURP. Dr . S. Parthasarathy MD., DA., DNB, MD ( Acu ), Dip. Diab . DCA , Dip. Software statistics Ph.D. (physiology ) Mahatma Gandhi medical college and research institute , puducherry – India . How common ??. Approximately 40 000 transurethral resections

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AnAesthetic management of TURP

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Anaesthetic management of turp

AnAesthetic management of TURP

Dr. S. Parthasarathy

MD., DA., DNB, MD (Acu),

Dip. Diab. DCA, Dip. Software statistics

Ph.D. (physiology)

Mahatma Gandhi medical college and research institute , puducherry – India


How common

How common ??

  • Approximately 40 000 transurethral resections

  • of the prostate (TURP) are performed annually

  • in the UK.

  • In pondicherry

  • 60 – 70 / month


Prostate nerve supply

Prostate nerve supply

  • The prostate and prostatic urethra receive sympathetic and parasympathetic supply from the prostatic plexus arising from the pelvic parasympathetic plexus, which is joined by the hypogastricplexus


Nerve and blood

Nerve and blood

  • Pain from prostate – sacral nerves S2 –S4

  • But bladder distension – sympathetic – T11 – L 2

  • It has a rich blood supply and venous drainage is via the large, thin-walled sinuses adjacent to the capsule.


Procedure

Procedure

  • The operation is performed through a modified cystoscope

  • • Prostatic tissue is resected using an electrically energized wire loop.

  • • Bleeding controlled coagulation current.

  • • Continuous irrigation is necessary to distend the bladder and to wash away blood and dissected prostatic tissue.


Preop systemic illness

Preop - Systemic illness

  • Age – 69

  • Diabetes, musculo skeletal ,

  • Neuro, renal

  • CVS

  • GI ,COPD , airway

  • Occasionly patients are dehydrated and depleted of essential electrolytes (long-term diuretic therapy and restricted fluid intake).


Preop evaluation

Preop evaluation

  • Lab investigations , ECG ,CxR

  • Urine analysis – infection

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis

  • Blood gases, echo if needed

  • Blood grouping – remember 6 %

  • Anemia large glands > 40 G


Drugs

DRUGS

  • antihypertensive and antianginal drugs should be continued until the day of surgery.

  • Beta blockers

  • ACE inhibitors

  • Bronchodilators

  • Anti diabetic drugs

  • Warfarin


Premedication

Premedication

  • Antibiotics,drugs and benzodiazepines

  • Anesthesia

  • Regional / GA


Anesthesia

Anesthesia

  • Spinal anaesthesia is regarded as the technique of choice for TURP

  • 2.5–3.0 ml of 0.5% plain or hyperbaric bupivacaine may be used.

  • Level T 10

  • Why ??- bladder, capsular sign !!

  • Why spinal ??


For spinal

For spinal

  • for patients with significant respiratory disease.

  • good postoperative analgesia , blood loss less

  • may reduce the stress response to surgery.

  • spinal anaesthesia allows the anaesthetist to monitor the patient’s level of consciousness, which makes it easier to detect the early signs of TURP syndrome.

  • Early recognition of capsular tears and bladder perforation is also possible


Tips about spinal

Tips about spinal

  • Intraoperative fluid overload less

  • DVT less

  • Use vasopressors for hypotension – add fentanyl.

  • Technically easy than epidural

  • Sacral sparing – no

  • USE NS than RL – more osmolar and more sodium

  • Warm IVF


General anaesthesia

General anaesthesia

  • Contraindication to spinal

  • Cant lie down for longer times

  • Cough during lying down.

  • ETT or proseal LMA

  • Dilutionalhyponatremia – prolong NM blockers

  • Post op caudal

  • Rarely done under LA


Lithotomy

Lithotomy

  • Significant amount of intravascular volume is added to the central circulation.

  • Perfusion pressure of lower extremities = 10 – 15 mmHg – compression – compartment syndrome

  • Nerve compressions

  • Respiratory changes


Position lithotomy

Position – lithotomy


It can happen

It can happen !!

  • Under light planes of general anesthesia, penile erection may interfere with surgery.

  • It can usually be managed by deepening anesthesia.

  • Spinal anesthesia does not always prevent this

    complication.


Anaesthetic management of turp

Irrigation fluid


The ideal irrigation fluid

The ideal irrigation fluid

  • is transparent (for good visibility),

  • electrically non-conductive (to prevent dispersion of the diathermy current),

  • isotonic, non-toxic

  • non-haemolytic when absorbed,

  • easy to sterilize, inexpensive.

  • However, no solution fulfils all of these criteria.


Solutions osm adv and disadv

Solutions- osm. Adv. And disadv.

  • Distilled water 0 visible but hemolysis

  • Glycine (1.5% - 2%) 200 visual

  • Sorbitol (3%) 165 hyperglycemia, diuresis

  • Mannitol (5%) 275 diuresis, overload

  • Glucose( 2.5%) 140 hyperglycemia

  • Urea ( 1%) 167


Turp syndrome

TURP syndrome


Definition

Definition

  • Constellation of some symptoms , signs

  • excessive absorption of irrigating solution

  • Direct intravascular access

  • Thro perivascular spaces

  • Changes in volume, electrolytes, osmolarily

  • Asymptomatic hyponatremia has been

  • observed in 50% of patients undergoing TURP


How much and when

How much and when

  • 1 – 8 %

  • 15 minutes to after 24 hours

  • Direct vascular or bladder rupture and absorption

  • Mortality around 0.2% - 0.8%


Clinical features

Clinical features

  • Acute fluid overload --- hypertension and reflex bradycardia

  • Later on equilibration from ECF, hypotension and hypovolumia

  • Sympathetic block of spinal

  • Can precipitate pulmonary edema


Clinical features1

Clinical features

  • When glycine 1.5% is used as the irrigation fluid, early features restlessness, headache, and tachypnoea,

  • or a burning sensation in the face and hands.

  • Visual disturbance including transient blindness

  • increasing severity include respiratory distress, hypoxia, pulmonary oedema, nausea, vomiting, confusion, convulsions, and coma.


Hypoosmolality

Hypoosmolality

  • Hypoosmolalityis more important than hyponatremia

  • 2[Na+] + [Glucose]/18 + [ BUN ]/2.8

  • Effective pore size of BBB is 8 A – permeable to water than sodium


How much fluid

How much fluid

  • 8 L of irrigation solution can be absorbed by the patient during TURP.

  • The average rate of absorption is 20 mL per minute may reach 200 mL per minute;

  • the average weight gain by the end of surgery is 2 kg

  • Ethanol 1%, electrolytes (Mg).CVP etc – volume absorbed


Factors

Factors

  • Hypotensive, hypovolumic – more

  • Capsule perforation – more

  • Resection time

  • Fluid bag , 30 cm from operating table height

  • Blood loss

  • Large prostate (>50 G)


In a study of 117 cases

In a study of 117 cases.


Glycine

Glycine

  • Nonessential amino acid

  • NMDA receptor activity is potentiated by glycine

  • Metabolized to gly oxalic acid and ammonia

  • Ammonia – transient blindness

  • Oxalate – precipitation of renal failure

  • Redistributed in 6 min

  • Half life 40 min to a few hours.

  • Normal plasma levels 13- 17 mg/l.


What means turp syndrome in ga

What means TURP syndrome in GA ??

  • in the anaesthetized patient the only clue may be tachycardia and hypertension.

  • • diagnosis can be confirmed by finding a low serum sodium.

  • An acute fall to < 120 mEq/L is always symptomatic.

  • Osmolarity more important than sodium


Serum sodium

Serum sodium

  • 120 - confusion – wide QRS

  • 115 – somnolence , nausea – st elevation + T inv.

  • 110 seizures , coma – V tach


Indicators of volume gain

Indicators of volume gain

  • Ethanol 1% added to fluid and measurement of breath alcohol level.

  • Weight gain

  • Serum sodium

  • CVP trend etc.


Hyper ammonemia

Hyper ammonemia

  • Possible CNS symptoms

  • 4 gm of l arginine infused in 3 minutes decreases ammonia

  • l arginine – 950 mosm / Kg


Management of turp syndrome

Management of TURp syndrome

  • Stop surgery

  • Oxygen, ventilation, inotropes anticonvulsants diuretics

  • Invasive monitors in selected cases.

  • exerts a negative control on the NMDA receptor and also having a membrane-stabilizing effect, and magnesium therapy should be considered as part of the therapy for seizures in TURP syndrome.


Investigations

Investigations

  • Blood , BUN, glucose , ABG , electrolytes

  • CXR, ECG, Hematocrit

  • Severe cases of symptomatic hyponatremia

  • 3 % hypertonic saline 2 * 0.6 * Weight

  • 2 *42 = 84 ml of 3% hypertonic saline – I meq. / l

  • I F we correct fast –

  • Osmotic demyelination syndrome.


Intraoperative

Intraoperative

  • Myocardial ischaemia - can occur in up to 25% of patients during TURP, with myocardial infarction occurring in 1-3%

  • Hypothermia.. Warmed irrigation fluid has NOT been shown to increase blood loss by local vasodilation.

  • warm i.v. fluids, active patient warming devices.

  • • Perforation of prostatic capsule, urethra or bladder with the resectoscope.

  • • Bleeding


Blood loss

Blood loss

  • blood loss should lie within the range of 7-20 ml per gram of resected tissue.

  • Or

  • 2 - 5 ml / minute


Factors 1

Factors - 1 %

  • Large gland

  • Time , Infection

  • Pre op catheter

  • TRANEXAMIC ACID 15 MG / KG - useful

  • Prostate can release thromboplastin to cause fibrinolysis. -- EACA


Bladder perforation

Bladder perforation

  • Peri umbilical pain

  • Hypotension sweating restlessness

  • Hiccups

  • Rarely shoulder pain

  • Spinal identifies


Post operative problems

Post operative problems

  • Pain – not severe .- rare use opioids

  • Bladder spasm

  • Clot retention –

  • precipitate bradycardia

  • TURP syndrome

  • Cognition impairment


Dvt and pe

Dvt and PE

  • compression stockings are usually adequate as prophylaxis.

  • Low-molecular-weight heparin should be considered in patients at higher risk

  • (poor mobility, malignancy, inter current illness, and obesity).


Summary turp

Summary - turp

  • High number

  • Preop disease , antibiotics

  • spinal , level, Position ( GA / LA)

  • TURP syndrome – irrigation fluid 20 ml/ min., factors

  • Hypoosmolarity – NS , inotropes, stop surgery

  • Blood loss, perforation bladder

  • Pain ??


Thank you all

Thank you all


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