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A new dawn for electricity?. Unpacking the role of changing EU and national governance TENTATIVE... Måns Nilsson, Stockholm Environment Institute w contributions from Lars J Nilsson, Lunds Universitet. Study Purpose.

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A new dawn for electricity?

Unpacking the role of changing EU and national governance


Måns Nilsson, Stockholm Environment Institute

w contributions from Lars J Nilsson, Lunds Universitet

Study Purpose

  • To understand the role of EU and domestic policy in on-going developments in the energy production sector* in Sweden.

A change in orientation? The first question

  • To what extent and in what ways can we identify a reorientation towards electricity in the current development of the Swedish energy sector?


Investment boom

  • Current pipeline:

  • CHP forecast

    13,2 TWH in 2007 up to 17,5 TWH in 2010. there are extensive existing plans for more CHP, both from biomass and waste incineration. (STEM, 2008)

  • Wind power forecast:

    • 1,4 TWH in 2007 and going up to 3,4 TWh in 2010 (STEM, 2008)

  • Plans add up to 300 billion SEK over 10 years (Swedish Energy)

Global investment in sustainable energy

Strong interest in Swedish export potential towards EU

  • Total 185 TWh

  • 100 TWh renewable

  • We ”import” more and more of the continental electricity prices

    (source Profu)

Electricity seen as solution to transport sector climate / mobility dilemma in Sweden

  • Political concerns on the sustainability and large-scale potential for liquid biofuels (Börjesson, Nilsson et al, 2008)

  • Plug in hybrids – 7 TWh per year (5% of total) takes us all the way to present climate targets in transport sector (Elforsk, 2008).

Heat Pumps

More positive treatment as RES in EU proposal

More grid capacity planned

Reduced interest in heating?

  • Efforts into more efficient houses leading to demand decrease

  • STEM forecasts stable or slightly downward trend in heating consumption up to 2010

MARKAL heat production with 202020

Something in the air?

  • Bo Källstrand, former head of Swedenergy, sees:

    “ a change of attitude – electricity used to be the bad guy, now it is often seen as an opportunity for climate-efficient energy), and the future roll of electricity as the saviour of the transport-climate problem” (Interview)

New signals from politicians

  • Policies supporting CHP developments

  • Extension of certificate systems continue to drive prices up

  • Extension of nuclear capacity in present reactors

  • Statements and positions changing - rhetoric about bad electricity is gone

  • However Mr A Borg still enjoys raising electricity taxation...

Yes, there does seem to be an increasingly positive view on, and outlook for, electricity!How to explain this reorientation?

  • 2nd and 3rd Research Questions:

    • To what extent has EU policy governed the sector’s reorientation and to what extent is it a result of national political changes?

    • Through what mechanisms do EU and national policies affect the sector’s reorientation?

The basic framework

  • European policy

  • National policy

  • External factors

Outcome in ”field”

(incl. Investments etc)

  • Governance Mechanisms

    • Regulatory standard setting

    • Market-based governance Cognitive-normative governance

EU policy

-climate and energy package

National policy




R&D etc





External factors

-oil prices,

-economic growth

Reorientation of field




1. The market mechanism

EU policies – Climate & Energy Package

  • CO2: -20% to 2020

    • ETS sectors -21% from 2005 EU wide

      (35% av Swedish emissions; power&heat, refineries, coal, steel, minerals, paper&pulp

    • Non-trading sector: -17% from 2005 for Sweden (-10% EU wide)

      (65% av Swedish emissions; housing, transport, waste, agriculture, some industries

Domestic policies – Certificates

EU climate and energy package requires new investments in electricity

  • The RES target requires 25 TWh new wind, CHP or hydro

  • ETS increases electricity prices – strengthen incentives to invest

  • And: grid enhancements, green certificate extensions, concession easening, enhanced hydro

MARKAL results on 202020 (Profu)

  • Virtually all new power will be renewable

  • Sweden will become big exporter

  • ETS increases price, RES decreases it

  • Demand will first continue to go up and then go down (but when?)

  • Nuclear only feasible after 2030 (replacing the old ones)

Electricity use in Norden

CO2 emissions in Norden

Heat constrained by 202020? (MARKAL)Reference case 202020 case

Efficiency targets constrains use, heat pumps are pushed in.

GO trading – an opportunity lost?

Regulatory standard setting

  • Changes in permitting procedure

  • Energy efficiency standards

  • Instructions to Vattenfall

Cognitive-normative governance

  • RD&D funding and partnerships

  • Climate commitment strongly integrated in energy sector

  • Nuclear deliberations changing at EU and national levels

  • Renewed interest in broad debate eg BASEL, Krafttag.nu: (Resvik, Svenskt Näringsliv)

  • Sweden’s last ”weapon”... (Leif Johansson, CH Svanberg mfl DN debatt 25/10

  • Other political signal

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