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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970. What do you do when a friend is accused? What happens when two people stop being friendly because of conflicting personalities or ideas?. Cold War?. The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990).

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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970

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The early cold war 1947 1970

The EarlyCold War:1947-1970

What do you do when a friend is accused?

What happens when two people stop being friendly because of conflicting personalities or ideas?


Cold war

Cold War?

  • The tension and rivalry between the USA and the USSR was described as the Cold War (1945-1990).

  • - Never a real war between the

    two sides between 1945 and 1990, but

    they were often very close to war Hotspots

    - Both sides got involved in other conflicts

    in the world to either stop or spread

    communism

    **What else caused the “tension”???


  • The early cold war 1947 1970

    The Ideological Struggle

    Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”]

    US & the Western Democracies

    GOAL spread world-wide Communism

    GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.

    • METHODOLOGIES:

    • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]

    • Arms Race [nuclear escalation]

    • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    The “Iron Curtain”

    From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946


    Many countries became communist after world war 2 including

    Many countries became communist after World War 2 including:

    • Czechoslovakia (1948)

    • Poland (1947)

    • Hungary (1947)

    • Romania

    • China (1949)

    • Cuba (1959)

    • North Korea (1945)


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Truman Doctrine [1947]

    • Civil War in Greece.

    • Turkey under pressure from the USSR to give up land-Dardanelles.

    • “The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.”

    • The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Marshall Plan [1948]

    • “European Recovery Program.”

    • Secretary of State, George Marshall

    • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.

    • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Post-War Germany


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)

    CheckpointCharlie


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?”

    • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.

    • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

    • United States

    • Belgium

    • Britain

    • Canada

    • Denmark

    • France

    • Iceland

    • Italy

    • Luxemburg

    • Netherlands

    • Norway

    • Portugal

    • 1952: Greece & Turkey

    • 1955: West Germany

    • 1983: Spain


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Warsaw Pact (1955)

    • U. S. S. R.

    • Albania

    • Bulgaria

    • Czechoslovakia

    • East Germany

    • Hungary

    • Poland

    • Rumania


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)

    Divided along the 38th parallel

    “Domino Theory”—if one country falls to communism, others will follow


    North vs south

    North vs South

    • Stop the spread of communism into South Korea—fighting North Korea/China

    Syngman Rhee—South Korea

    Kim Sung-North Korea


    1950 1953

    1950-1953

    • 520,000 troops, 90% American-led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur-South

    • 590,000 troops-North

    • When Americans get to Yalu River, war becomes fight between China and US

    • MacArthur wants to invade China with nukes—Truman says “NO”(China in mutual assistance pact with Soviets, would become WW 3!!), FIRES MacArthur—Soviets suggest cease fire June 1951—2 years haggling=stalemate


    Legacy of the forgotten war

    Legacy of the “Forgotten War”

    • 54,000 American lives

    • $67 BILLION

    • Americans reject Democratic Party and elect a Republican in 1952-WW 2 hero Eisenhower

    • Increased fear of Communist aggression

    • Prompted a hunt for Communists


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Premier Nikita Khrushchev

    About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956

    De-Stalinization Program


    Cold war @ home hysterical legislation

    Cold War @ HomeHysterical Legislation

    • Federal Employee Loyalty Program-investigate gov’t employees/dismiss those found to be disloyal to US

    • 3.2 million investigated, 212 fired, 2,900 quit

    • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

    • Legalized witch hunts

    • Hollywood film industry targeted because they made PRO-Soviet Union movies during WW 2 (Soviets were our ally then)

    • “Hollywood Ten” blacklisted-refused to name names


    Hysterical legislation cont

    Hysterical Legislation cont.

    • McCarran Internal Security Act- unlawful to plan any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in US..

    • Truman vetoed it

    • Congress passes it


    Spy cases

    Spy Cases

    • Alger Hiss-State Department official found guilty of perjury (couldn’t prove espionage) R. Nixon prosecuting attorney

    • Rosenbergs-leaking scientific info to SU to build atomic bomb..sentenced to death (electric chair 1953)


    Mccarthyism

    McCarthyism

    • Unfair tactic of accusing people of disloyalty without providing evidence

    • Senate inquisition into non-patriotic acts, ruins numerous careers

    • McCarthy attacks Army, Senate investigation (televised)..bullying and no evidence=loses favor

    • Dies a broken alcoholic man

    • Cause/Effect p. 621


    Living on the edge

    Living on the Edge

    • Brinkmanship-US willing to go to all out war, smaller Army/Navy, larger Air Force(it could drop the H-bomb)

    • Fear of Nuclear War lasted 30 years

    • NATO-Warsaw Pact map p. 624

      Stalin’s death in 1953 thawed cold relations temporarily—Geneva Summit


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957

    Egypt ultimately retains control of the canal


    Eisenhower doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine

    • Issued to counterbalance Soviets presence during Suez War

    • January 1957—The U.S. will defend the Middle East against any attack by any communist country


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    Sputnik I (1957)

    Soviet Union beats America into space—artificial satellite; U.S. launches satellite in January 1958

    Big Brother starts “watching”


    The early cold war 1947 1970

    U-2 Spy Incident (1960)

    Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace—we were spying

    Eisenhower refuses to

    apologize to Soviet

    leader Krushchev…

    the 60’s begin with even

    MORE tension between

    the superpowers


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