Session 1 social inequality stratification
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Session 1: Social Inequality & Stratification. Quick recap : With your partner, discuss the meanings of the keywords underlined. Describe the concept of stratification and how it links with unequal distribution of wealth, income, status and power

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Session 1: Social Inequality & Stratification

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Session 1 social inequality stratification

Session 1: Social Inequality & Stratification

Quick recap: With your partner, discuss the meanings of the keywords underlined.

Describe the concept of stratification and how it links with unequal distribution of wealth, income, status and power

Explain the major concepts involved in the analysis of stratification, including class, status and life chances

Identify and describe forms of stratification based on class, gender, ethnicity, age and religion

Describe different sociological explanations of poverty, the cycle of poverty, the culture of poverty, structural explanations, welfare dependency, long-term unemployment and social exclusion.

EQ: Explain what sociologists mean by the term social inequality (4 marks)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Social inequality

More power, wealth, income and status

Less power, wealth, income and status

EQ: Identify two ways in which sociologists decide an individual’s social status. (2 marks)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

More power, wealth, income and status

Less power, wealth, income and status

Registrar general’s scale

Solicitors, surgeons, architects

Professional occupations

Teachers, nurses, pilots

Managerial

Skilled non manual

Secretary/receptionist

Bus driver, electrician, hairdresser

Skilled manual

Partly skilled

Postal worker, bartenders, caretaker

Unskilled

Refuse collectors, cleaners

Measuring social class

What are the problems with using

occupation to measure social class?


Session 1 social inequality stratification

More power, wealth, income and status

Less power, wealth, income and status

NS-SEC class scale

Higher managerial

solicitor

Higher managerial

Lower managerial

teachers

secretaries

Intermediate

Employers

farmers

Lower supervisory

Car mechanic

Semi routine

Bus driver

Routine

cleaner

Never worked

Unemployed

Measuring social class

EQ: Identify two reasons why some occupations have higher status than others. (2 marks)

Why is this better than the Register general’s scale?


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Problem’s with the Registrar General’s scale

Students, retired, unemployed…

the same as their husbands…

Wealth, status, property…

  • Doesn’t include groups such as…

  • Married women were classed as….

  • Doesn’t reflect other factors such as…

    NS-SEC scale now reflects levels of authority


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Describe one way of measuring social class and explain how accurate this measurement is. (5)

One way could be using the registrar general’s scale. For example a surgeon is upper class professional

They are not accurate because people may have a professional job but not a lot of money.

This means that it doesn’t take into account other factors.

For example a newly qualified surgeon may still be paying off university debt which means that he does not have the wealth or status of most upper classes people.

2/2

Identify

3/3

Explain

5/5


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Describe one social class and explain how it could be measured . (5)

One social class could be the upper class

For example people with wealth, status and power

This could be measured using the registrar general’s scale

This means that a person’s occupation is used to judge their class

For example a brain surgeon would be judged as upper class as they have a professional job.

2/2

Identify

3/3

Explain

5/5


Exam questions

Exam questions

  • Describe one way that social class can be measured and explain why it is measured in this way (5)


Keyword check

Keyword check!

What do these three terms mean?

  • Ascribed status

  • Achieved status

  • Social mobility

How do people become socially mobile?


Session 1 social inequality stratification

EQ: Identify two reasons why an individual’s social class may change during his or her lifetime. (2 marks)

Social mobility

Education

Talent/ ability

Family background

Factors affecting peoples’ ability to become socially mobile

Marriage

Changes in occupational structure

Inheritance


Examples of social mobility 1 margaret thatcher

Examples of social mobility: 1) Margaret Thatcher

Social mobility

  • Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher

  • born 13 October 1925

  • served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.

  • She is the only woman to have held either post.

  • Born in Grantham in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom, she read chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford and later trained as a barrister.

Thatcher spent her childhood in the town of Grantham in Lincolnshire, where her father owned two grocery shops.She and her older sister were raised in the flat above the larger of the two located near the railway line.Her father was active in local politics and religion, serving as a lay preacher. He came from a Liberal family but stood—as was then customary in local government—as an Independent. He lost his post as Alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950.


Examples of social mobility 2 sir richard branson

Examples of social mobility: 2) Sir Richard Branson

Social mobility

Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson born 18 July 1950

best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies.

Branson's first successful business venture was at age 16, when he published a magazine called Student.

He then set up an audio record mail-order business in 1970. In 1972,

he opened a chain of record stores, Virgin Records, later known as Virgin Megastores and rebranded after a management buyout as Zavvi in late 2007.

Richard Branson is the 261st richest person in the world according to Forbes' 2009 list of billionaires, with an estimated net worth of approximately £1.5 billion

Branson was born in Blackheath, the son of barrister. His grandfather the Right Honourable Sir George Arthur Harwin Branson, was a judge of the High Court of Justice. Branson was educated at Scaitcliffe School (now Bishopsgate School)until the age of thirteen. He then attended Stowe School until he was sixteen. Branson has mild dyslexia and had poor academic performance as a student, but discovered his ability to connect with others.

EQ: Discuss how far sociologists would agree that improving access to high-quality education is the most effective way to increase upward social mobility. (12 marks)


What do sociologists think about social mobility

What do sociologists think about social mobility?

  • Marxists

  • Does social mobility exist?

  • Do people have achieved status or ascribed status?

  • Who is at the top of the social hierarchy?

  • Functionalists

  • Does social mobility exist?

  • Do people have achieved status or ascribed status?

  • How do people become socially mobile?


Functionalist views on social class

Functionalist views on social class

We live in a meritocracy = through talent & determination you can become socially mobile.

Theories of social class


Marxism

Marxism

Workers are exploited and alienated from their work

The upper class maintain the status quo using the family, education and religion to make people think that they should work hard.

Theories of social class


New right

New Right

People should not get social security benefits if they do not have a job as it encourages them to be lazy.

Tax payers money should not be spent on providing others with job seekers allowance.

People become dependent on welfare benefits.

Theories of social class


Feminism

Feminism

Women face a glass ceiling at work

Sexism still exists at work

Women are still a minority in top jobs

Theories of social class


Exam questions 2

Exam Questions 2

  • Explain what sociologists mean by life chances (4)

  • Explain what sociologists mean by institutional racism. (4)

  • Explain what sociologists mean by social exclusion (4)

  • Explain what sociologists mean by the glass ceiling. (4 marks)

  • Describe one way in which governments have attempted to increase upward social mobility and explain why this may not have been successful. (5)

  • Describe one possible cause of social exclusion and explain why people often find it hard to escape from this situation. (5)

  • Describe one way in which the status of the elderly may be lower than that of other age groups in society and explain how this may lead to discrimination against them (5)


Session 2 life chances poverty

Session 2: Life chances & Poverty

EQ: Explain what sociologists mean by the poverty trap. (4)

Describe and explain the ways in which life chances are influenced by differences in wealth, income, power and status; and describe and explain the relationship between such inequalities and social factors such as class, gender and ethnicity.

Describe different sociological explanations of poverty, the cycle of poverty, the culture of poverty, structural explanations, welfare dependency, long-term unemployment and social exclusion.

Benefits such as childcare vouchers and housing benefit are means-tested, which means they are calculated based on income. Some people find that if they get a job and their income increases, their entitlement to these benefits will also stop and sometimes this means that they are actually worse off financially if they work than if they don’t. This is called the poverty trap as it traps people into poverty.

EQ: Describe one reason why people find themselves in poverty and explain why it might be difficult for them to get out of this situation. (5 marks)


Which sectors of society do you think are more likely to be poor

Which sectors of society do you think are more likely to be poor?

  • Single parents

  • Elderly

  • Working class/underclass

  • Ethnic minorities

  • EQ:

  • Describe one social group whose members are more likely than others to experience poverty and explain why this group is more at risk of experiencing poverty (5)

  • Describe one consequence of child poverty and explain why the problem of child poverty still exists (5 marks)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

EQ: Describe one way in which ethnicity and social class may be linked and explain the possible consequences of this link (5)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Living on state pension

Limited means of income

Health problems can cause expense

Cost of private healthcare


Session 1 social inequality stratification

More likely to experience discrimination and not get a higher paid job

More likely to be in low skilled, low paid manual work – racism/ discrimination

Culturally seen as socially unacceptable to claim benefits they may be entitled to

Under achievement at school – less qualifications – lower paid work


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Women

Married women rely husbands

Fewer women have occupational pensions

Women live longer, their pension has to last longer.

Women earn less than men on average.

Women are more likely to be single mums.


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Only one income

More likely to be in part time, lower paid work to fit around child care

Benefits not high enough to keep single parents out of poverty, but a soon as they earn more money they lose their benefits.


Children

children

Rely on parents income, who may not have enough money to give them. (don’t work)

Children in single parent families are more likely to be in poverty

Arrival of new children, can push parents into poverty.

Young people may be put off going to Uni by the debt they will accumulate. (Graduates generally earn more than those without higher educational qualifications.)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Disabilities make it difficult to find work, may be restricted with choice of work/ face discrimination.

There are extra costs such as adapting the home which very expensive.

Changes by the conservative government means that benefits were lower for people with disabilities.


Poverty can be measured by life chances

Poverty can be measured by life chances…

Life chances = measurable positive or negative outcomes across a person’s lifetime e.g. based on education, health, income, housing, employment.

  • Describe one way in which some minority ethnic groups have fewer life chances than others and explain why this appears to continue over time. (5 marks)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

What would a Marxist say when asked if life chances are distributed unequally in society?

A: Competition in society creates winners and losers. The winners are rich and powerful & have the best life chances – best education, healthcare etc. The losers are poor and have the worst life chances…

What would a Functionalist say when asked if life chances are distributed unequally in society?

A: Welfare benefits, free education and free healthcare mean that individuals can improve their life chances if they want to. Hard work and a sensible lifestyle can turn these opportunities into better life chances…


Session 1 social inequality stratification

To what extent what sociologists agree that if people are in poverty they only have themselves to blame (12)


Poverty exam questions

Poverty Exam Questions

  • Identify two sources of income (2)

  • Describe one reason why some sociologists use relative definitions of poverty and explain why some politicians might prefer to use absolute definitions. (5 marks)

  • Describe one way in which poverty can be defined and explain the problems with defining poverty in this way (5)

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that poverty is likely to persist from one generation of a family to the next generation (12)


Session 3 social issues

Session 3: Social issues

  • Starter: Identify two things that the government has done to try to help with each of these social issues:

  • Racism

  • Gender inequality

  • Age discrimination

  • Poverty

Analyse whether Britain is becoming a meritocracy/classless society, whether class inequality/division has become less significant than inequalities/divisions based on gender, ethnicity or age.


Session 1 social inequality stratification

EQ:

  • Identify two ways in which British governments have tried to reduce inequalities between different ethnic groups over the last 50 years (2 marks)

  • Describe one way in which governments have attempted to end gender discrimination in the workplace and explain why this policy might not have been successful. (5 marks)

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that gender discrimination in the workplace remains an issue in Britain today. (12 marks)

  • Describe one way in which the social position of women in Britain has changed over the last 50 years and explain the reasons for this change (5)

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that the growth of an underclass has led to an increasing number of social problems in Britain today. (12 marks)


Session 1 social inequality stratification

Age

Ethnicity

Discuss how far

_____is a more significant

cause of poverty/social

division than other

factors… (12)

Gender

Unemployment

Welfare dependency

Social class


Exam questions 3

Exam Questions 3

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that modern Britain is a meritocratic society (12)

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that Britain is now a classless society (12)

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is less class inequality now than 50 years ago. (12 marks)

  • Discuss how far sociologists would agree that there is still a traditional working class in Britain today. (12 marks)


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